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Sodium and Salt Consumption in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Systematic-Review and Meta-Analysis of Population-Based Studies and Surveys

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK
CRONICAS Centre of Excellence in Chronic Diseases, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Lima 18, Peru
Centro de Estudios de Población, Universidad Católica los Ángeles de Chimbote (ULADECH-Católica), Chimbote 02804, Peru
Universidad Científica del Sur, Lima 15067, Peru
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 556;
Received: 7 January 2020 / Revised: 14 February 2020 / Accepted: 18 February 2020 / Published: 20 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Sodium/salt consumption is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Although global targets to reduce salt intake have been established, current levels and trends of sodium consumption in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) are unknown. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based studies in which sodium consumption was analyzed based on urine samples (24 hour samples or otherwise). The search was conducted in Medline, Embase, Global Health, Scopus and LILACS. From 2350 results, 53 were studied in detail, of which 15 reports were included, providing evidence for 18 studies. Most studies were from Brazil (7/18) and six collected 24 hour urine samples. In the random effects meta-analysis, 12 studies (29,875 people) were analyzed since 2010. The pooled mean 24 hour estimated sodium consumption was 4.13 g/day (10.49 g/day of salt). When only national surveys were analyzed, the pooled mean was 3.43 g/day (8.71 g/day of salt); when only community studies were analyzed the pooled mean was 4.39 g/day (11.15 g/day of salt). Studies had low risk of bias. The estimated 24 hour sodium consumption is more than twice the World Health Organization recommendations since 2010. Regional organizations and governments should strengthen policies and interventions to measure and reduce sodium consumption in LAC. View Full-Text
Keywords: sodium chloride; sodium; dietary; global health sodium chloride; sodium; dietary; global health
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Carrillo-Larco, R.M.; Bernabe-Ortiz, A. Sodium and Salt Consumption in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Systematic-Review and Meta-Analysis of Population-Based Studies and Surveys. Nutrients 2020, 12, 556.

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