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Calcium Oxalate Nephrolithiasis and Gut Microbiota: Not just a Gut-Kidney Axis. A Nutritional Perspective

1
Geriatric-Rehabilitation Department, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Parma, Via Antonio Gramsci 14, 43126 Parma, Italy
2
Microbiome Research Hub, University of Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 11/A, 43124 Parma, Italy
3
Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Via Antonio Gramsci 14, 43126 Parma, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020548
Received: 31 January 2020 / Revised: 14 February 2020 / Accepted: 18 February 2020 / Published: 20 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Urinary Stone Disease)
Recent studies have shown that patients with kidney stone disease, and particularly calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis, exhibit dysbiosis in their fecal and urinary microbiota compared with controls. The alterations of microbiota go far beyond the simple presence and representation of Oxalobacter formigenes, a well-known symbiont exhibiting a marked capacity of degrading dietary oxalate and stimulating oxalate secretion by the gut mucosa. Thus, alterations of the intestinal microbiota may be involved in the pathophysiology of calcium kidney stones. However, the role of nutrition in this gut-kidney axis is still unknown, even if nutritional imbalances, such as poor hydration, high salt, and animal protein intake and reduced fruit and vegetable intake, are well-known risk factors for kidney stones. In this narrative review, we provide an overview of the gut-kidney axis in nephrolithiasis from a nutritional perspective, summarizing the evidence supporting the role of nutrition in the modulation of microbiota composition, and their relevance for the modulation of lithogenic risk. View Full-Text
Keywords: urolithiasis; diet; oxalate; renal calculi; microbiome; Oxalobacter urolithiasis; diet; oxalate; renal calculi; microbiome; Oxalobacter
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ticinesi, A.; Nouvenne, A.; Chiussi, G.; Castaldo, G.; Guerra, A.; Meschi, T. Calcium Oxalate Nephrolithiasis and Gut Microbiota: Not just a Gut-Kidney Axis. A Nutritional Perspective. Nutrients 2020, 12, 548.

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