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Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Predictive Value of Fetal Growth Measurements by Ultrasonography at 22–24 Weeks: A Retrospective Cohort Study of Medical Records

1
Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health/National Health Commission Key Laboratory of Reproductive Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China
2
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
3
Division of Women’s Health, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3645; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123645
Received: 6 October 2020 / Revised: 30 October 2020 / Accepted: 12 November 2020 / Published: 27 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Early intervention of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is effective in reducing pregnancy disorders. Fetal growth, measured by routine ultrasound scan a few weeks earlier before GDM diagnosis, might be useful to identify women at high risk of GDM. In the study, generalized estimating equations were applied to examine the associations between ultrasonic indicators of abnormal fetal growth at 22–24 weeks and the risk of subsequent GDM diagnosis. Of 44,179 deliveries, 8324 (18.8%) were diagnosed with GDM between 24 and 28 weeks. At 22–24 weeks, fetal head circumference (HC) < 10th, fetal femur length (FL) < 10th, and estimated fetal weight (EFW) < 10th percentile were associated with 13% to 17% increased risks of maternal GDM diagnosis. Small fetal size appeared to be especially predictive of GDM among women who were parous. Fetal growth in the highest decile of abdominal circumference (AC), HC, FL and EFW was not associated with risk of subsequent GDM. The observed mean difference in fetal size across gestation by GDM was small; there was less than 1 mm difference for AC, HC, and FL, and less than 5 g for EFW before 24 weeks. Despite similar mean fetal growth among women who were and were not later diagnosed with GDM, mothers with fetuses in the lowest decile of HC, FL and EFW at 22–24 weeks tended to have higher risk of GDM. View Full-Text
Keywords: fetal growth; fetal ultrasound; gestational diabetes mellitus; prenatal screening; pregnancy nutrition fetal growth; fetal ultrasound; gestational diabetes mellitus; prenatal screening; pregnancy nutrition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jin, D.; Rich-Edwards, J.W.; Chen, C.; Huang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Xu, X.; Liu, J.; Liu, Z.; Gao, Y.; Zou, S.; Zhou, H.; Wang, H. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Predictive Value of Fetal Growth Measurements by Ultrasonography at 22–24 Weeks: A Retrospective Cohort Study of Medical Records. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3645. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123645

AMA Style

Jin D, Rich-Edwards JW, Chen C, Huang Y, Wang Y, Xu X, Liu J, Liu Z, Gao Y, Zou S, Zhou H, Wang H. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Predictive Value of Fetal Growth Measurements by Ultrasonography at 22–24 Weeks: A Retrospective Cohort Study of Medical Records. Nutrients. 2020; 12(12):3645. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123645

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jin, Danyao, Janet W. Rich-Edwards, Chunyi Chen, Yue Huang, Yinping Wang, Xiangrong Xu, Jue Liu, Zheng Liu, Yaqing Gao, Siyu Zou, Hong Zhou, and Haijun Wang. 2020. "Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Predictive Value of Fetal Growth Measurements by Ultrasonography at 22–24 Weeks: A Retrospective Cohort Study of Medical Records" Nutrients 12, no. 12: 3645. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123645

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