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Open AccessArticle

Effects of l-Carnitine Supplementation in Patients Receiving Hemodialysis or Peritoneal Dialysis

1
Department of Nephrology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8412, Japan
2
Department of Nephrology, Juntendo University Nerima Hospital, Tokyo 177-8521, Japan
3
Department of Nephrology, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Shizuoka 410-2211, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3371; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113371
Received: 30 September 2020 / Revised: 16 October 2020 / Accepted: 30 October 2020 / Published: 1 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Management for CKD (Chronic Kidney Disease))
l-carnitine is an important factor in fatty acid metabolism, and carnitine deficiency is common in dialysis patients. This study evaluated whether l-carnitine supplementation improved muscle spasm, cardiac function, and renal anemia in dialysis patients. Eighty Japanese outpatients (62 hemodialysis (HD) patients and 18 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients) received oral l-carnitine (600 mg/day) for 12 months; the HD patients further received intravenous l-carnitine injections (1000 mg three times/week) for 12 months, amounting to 24 months of treatment. Muscle spasm incidence was assessed using a questionnaire, and cardiac function was assessed using echocardiography. Baseline free carnitine concentrations were relatively low in patients who underwent dialysis for >4 years. Total carnitine serum concentration, free carnitine, and acylcarnitine significantly increased after oral l-carnitine treatment for 12 months, and after intravenous l-carnitine injection. There was no significant improvement in muscle spasms, although decreased muscle cramping after l-carnitine treatment was reported by 31% of patients who had undergone HD for >4 years. Hemoglobin concentrations increased significantly at 12 and 24 months in the HD group. Therefore, l-carnitine may be effective for reducing muscle cramping and improving hemoglobin levels in dialysis patients, especially those who have been undergoing dialysis for >4 years. View Full-Text
Keywords: l-carnitine; hemodialysis; peritoneal dialysis; renal anemia; muscle spasm l-carnitine; hemodialysis; peritoneal dialysis; renal anemia; muscle spasm
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kuwasawa-Iwasaki, M.; Io, H.; Muto, M.; Ichikawa, S.; Wakabayashi, K.; Kanda, R.; Nakata, J.; Nohara, N.; Tomino, Y.; Suzuki, Y. Effects of l-Carnitine Supplementation in Patients Receiving Hemodialysis or Peritoneal Dialysis. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3371. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113371

AMA Style

Kuwasawa-Iwasaki M, Io H, Muto M, Ichikawa S, Wakabayashi K, Kanda R, Nakata J, Nohara N, Tomino Y, Suzuki Y. Effects of l-Carnitine Supplementation in Patients Receiving Hemodialysis or Peritoneal Dialysis. Nutrients. 2020; 12(11):3371. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113371

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kuwasawa-Iwasaki, Masako; Io, Hiroaki; Muto, Masahiro; Ichikawa, Saki; Wakabayashi, Keiichi; Kanda, Reo; Nakata, Junichiro; Nohara, Nao; Tomino, Yasuhiko; Suzuki, Yusuke. 2020. "Effects of l-Carnitine Supplementation in Patients Receiving Hemodialysis or Peritoneal Dialysis" Nutrients 12, no. 11: 3371. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113371

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