Next Article in Journal
The Effects of a Functional Food Breakfast on Gluco-Regulation, Cognitive Performance, Mood, and Satiety in Adults
Next Article in Special Issue
Dietary Fibre from Whole Grains and Their Benefits on Metabolic Health
Previous Article in Journal
Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and Agave Inulin in Children with Cerebral Palsy and Chronic Constipation: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial
Previous Article in Special Issue
Next Generation Health Claims Based on Resilience: The Example of Whole-Grain Wheat
Open AccessArticle

The GReat-Child TrialTM: A Quasi-Experimental Dietary Intervention among Overweight and Obese Children

1
Nutritional Sciences Programme & Centre for Community Health Studies (ReaCH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 50300, Malaysia
2
Department of Bioscience, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Tunku Abdul Rahman University College, Kuala Lumpur 53300, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 2972; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12102972
Received: 1 September 2020 / Revised: 26 September 2020 / Accepted: 27 September 2020 / Published: 29 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Whole Grains for Nutrition and Health Benefits)
Diet composition is a key determinant of childhood obesity. While whole grains and micronutrients are known to decrease the risk of obesity, there are no interventions originating from Southeast Asia that emphasize whole grain as a strategy to improve overall quality of diet in combating childhood obesity. The GReat-Child Trial aimed to improve whole grain intake and quality of diet among overweight and obese children. It is a quasi-experimental intervention based on Social Cognitive Theory. It has a 12-week intervention and 6-month follow-up, consisting of three components that address environmental, personal, and behavioral factors. The intervention consists of: (1) six 30 min lessons on nutrition, using the Malaysian Food Pyramid to emphasize healthy eating, (2) daily deliveries of wholegrain foods to schools so that children can experience and accept wholegrain foods, and (3) diet counseling to parents to increase availability of wholegrain foods at home. Two primary schools with similar demographics in Kuala Lumpur were assigned as control (CG) and intervention (IG) groups. Inclusion criteria were: (1) children aged 9 to 11 years who were overweight/obese; (2) who did not consume whole grain foods; and (3) who had no serious co-morbidity problems. The entire trial was completed by 63 children (31 IG; 32 CG). Study outcomes were measured at baseline and at two time points post intervention (at the 3rd [T1] and 9th [T2] months). IG demonstrated significantly higher intakes of whole grain (mean difference = 9.94, 95%CI: 7.13, 12.75, p < 0.001), fiber (mean difference = 3.07, 95% CI: 1.40, 4.73, p = 0.001), calcium (mean difference = 130.27, 95%CI: 74.15, 186.39, p < 0.001), thiamin (mean difference = 58.71, 95%CI: 26.15, 91.28, p = 0.001), riboflavin (mean difference = 0.84, 95%CI: 0.37, 1.32, p = 0.001), niacin (mean difference = 0.35, 95%CI: 1.91, 5.16, p < 0.001), and vitamin C (mean difference = 58.71, 95%CI: 26.15, 91.28, p = 0.001) compared to CG in T1, after adjusting for covariates. However, T1 results were not sustained in T2 when intervention had been discontinued. The findings indicate that intervention emphasizing whole grains improved overall short-term but not long-term dietary intake among schoolchildren. We hope the present trial will lead to adoption of policies to increase whole grain consumption among Malaysian schoolchildren. View Full-Text
Keywords: children; childhood obesity; intervention; Malaysia; quality of diet; whole grain children; childhood obesity; intervention; Malaysia; quality of diet; whole grain
MDPI and ACS Style

Koo, H.C.; Poh, B.K.; Talib, R.A. The GReat-Child TrialTM: A Quasi-Experimental Dietary Intervention among Overweight and Obese Children. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2972.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop