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Open AccessArticle

Time and Age Trends in Free Sugar Intake from Food Groups among Children and Adolescents between 1985 and 2016

1
Institute of Nutritional and Food Sciences-Nutritional Epidemiology, University of Bonn, Donald Study Dortmund, Heinstück 11, 44225 Dortmund, Germany
2
Institute of General Practice and Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitätsstraße 150, 44801 Bochum, Germany
3
Institute of Nutrition, Consumption and Health, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Paderborn University, Warburger Straße 100, 33098 Paderborn, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010020
Received: 27 November 2019 / Revised: 16 December 2019 / Accepted: 17 December 2019 / Published: 20 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
Trend analyses suggest that free sugar (FS) intake—while still exceeding 10%E—has decreased among German children and adolescents since 2005, yet that intakes may shift from sugars naturally occurring in foods to added sugars as children age. Thus, we analysed time and age trends in FS intake (%E) from food groups among 3–18 year-olds (1985–2016) using 10,761 3-day dietary records from 1312 DONALD participants (660 boys, 652 girls) by use of polynomial mixed-effects regression models. Among girls, FS from sugar & sweets decreased from 1985 to 2016 (linear trend p < 0.0001), but not among boys (p > 0.05). In the total sample, FS intake from juices increased until 2000 and decreased since 2005 (linear, quadratic trend p < 0.0001). FS from sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) decreased non-linearly from 1985 to 2016 (girls: linear, quadratic, cubic trend p < 0.0001; boys: linear, quadratic, cubic trend p < 0.02). Younger children consumed more FS from juices than older ones, who had a higher FS intake from SSB. FS intake from sugar & sweets increased until early adolescence and decreased afterwards. Since sugar & sweets represent the main source of FS intake and the source with the least pronounced decline in intake, public health measures should focus on these products. View Full-Text
Keywords: free sugar; trends; children; adolescents; food groups free sugar; trends; children; adolescents; food groups
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MDPI and ACS Style

Perrar, I.; Schadow, A.M.; Schmitting, S.; Buyken, A.E.; Alexy, U. Time and Age Trends in Free Sugar Intake from Food Groups among Children and Adolescents between 1985 and 2016. Nutrients 2020, 12, 20. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010020

AMA Style

Perrar I, Schadow AM, Schmitting S, Buyken AE, Alexy U. Time and Age Trends in Free Sugar Intake from Food Groups among Children and Adolescents between 1985 and 2016. Nutrients. 2020; 12(1):20. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010020

Chicago/Turabian Style

Perrar, Ines; Schadow, Alena M.; Schmitting, Sarah; Buyken, Anette E.; Alexy, Ute. 2020. "Time and Age Trends in Free Sugar Intake from Food Groups among Children and Adolescents between 1985 and 2016" Nutrients 12, no. 1: 20. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010020

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