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Article

Subclinical Mastitis in a European Multicenter Cohort: Prevalence, Impact on Human Milk (HM) Composition, and Association with Infant HM Intake and Growth

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Nestlé Research, Société des Produits Nestlé SA, Route du Jorat 57, 1000 Lausanne, Switzerland
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Nestle Research, Singapore 618802, Singapore
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Hôpital des Enfants, CHU Pellegrin, 33000 Bordeaux, France
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Hospices Civils de Lyon, Neonatal intensive care unit, Hôpital Croix Rousse, 69004 Lyon, France
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Univ. Lyon, CarMeN Laboratory, INSERM U1060, INRA U1397, INSA Lyon, Universite Claude Bernard, 69221 Lyon 1, France
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Ospedale del Ponte, 21100 Varese, Italy
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Medical School, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Titu Maiorescu Medicine University, 031593 Bucharest, Romania
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Hospital de São Marcos, 4700-327 Braga, Portugal
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Instituto de Investigação em Ciências da Vida e Saúde, 4720-011 Braga, Portugal
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Hospital de S. João, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
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Karolinska University Hospital, 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden
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Centre d’Investigation Clinique de Lille, Hôpital Jeanne de Flandre, 59777 Lille, France
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Oslo University Hospital, 0372 Oslo, Norway
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Polizu Hospital, 060274 Bucharest, Romania
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Department of Pediatrics, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
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Department of Clinical Sciences, Pediatrics, Umea University, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010105
Received: 5 December 2019 / Revised: 19 December 2019 / Accepted: 23 December 2019 / Published: 30 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Milk, HMO, Lactation and Application in Infant Feeding)
Background: Subclinical mastitis (SCM) is an inflammatory condition of the mammary gland. We examined the effects of SCM on human milk (HM) composition, infant growth, and HM intake in a mother–infant cohort from seven European countries. Methods: HM samples were obtained from 305 mothers at 2, 17, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days postpartum. SCM status was assessed using HM Sodium (Na): Potassium (K) ratio >0.6. Levels of different macro- and micronutrients were analyzed in HM. Results: SCM prevalence in the first month of lactation was 35.4%. Mean gestational age at delivery was lower and birth by C-section higher in SCM mothers (p ≤ 0.001). HM concentrations of lactose, DHA, linolenic acid, calcium, and phosphorous (p < 0.05 for all) was lower, while total protein, alpha-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, albumin, arachidonic acid to DHA ratio, n-6 to n-3 ratio and minerals (iron, selenium, manganese, zinc, and copper) were higher (p < 0.001 for all) in mothers with SCM. There were no differences in infant growth and HM intake between non-SCM and SCM groups. Conclusion: We document, for the first time, in a large European standardized and longitudinal study, a high prevalence of SCM in early lactation and demonstrate that SCM is associated with significant changes in the macro- and micronutrient composition of HM. Future studies exploring the relation of SCM with breastfeeding behaviors and developmental outcomes are warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: subclinical mastitis; European population; human milk; longitudinal study; milk macronutrients subclinical mastitis; European population; human milk; longitudinal study; milk macronutrients
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MDPI and ACS Style

Samuel, T.M.; De Castro, C.A.; Dubascoux, S.; Affolter, M.; Giuffrida, F.; Billeaud, C.; Picaud, J.-C.; Agosti, M.; Al-Jashi, I.; Pereira, A.B.; Costeira, M.J.; Silva, M.G.; Marchini, G.; Rakza, T.; Haaland, K.; Stiris, T.; Stoicescu, S.-M.; Martínez-Costa, C.; Vanpee, M.; Domellöf, M.; Castañeda-Gutiérrez, E.; Thakkar, S.K.; Silva-Zolezzi, I. Subclinical Mastitis in a European Multicenter Cohort: Prevalence, Impact on Human Milk (HM) Composition, and Association with Infant HM Intake and Growth. Nutrients 2020, 12, 105. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010105

AMA Style

Samuel TM, De Castro CA, Dubascoux S, Affolter M, Giuffrida F, Billeaud C, Picaud J-C, Agosti M, Al-Jashi I, Pereira AB, Costeira MJ, Silva MG, Marchini G, Rakza T, Haaland K, Stiris T, Stoicescu S-M, Martínez-Costa C, Vanpee M, Domellöf M, Castañeda-Gutiérrez E, Thakkar SK, Silva-Zolezzi I. Subclinical Mastitis in a European Multicenter Cohort: Prevalence, Impact on Human Milk (HM) Composition, and Association with Infant HM Intake and Growth. Nutrients. 2020; 12(1):105. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010105

Chicago/Turabian Style

Samuel, Tinu M., Carlos A. De Castro, Stephane Dubascoux, Michael Affolter, Francesca Giuffrida, Claude Billeaud, Jean-Charles Picaud, Massimo Agosti, Isam Al-Jashi, Almerinda B. Pereira, Maria J. Costeira, Maria G. Silva, Giovanna Marchini, Thameur Rakza, Kirsti Haaland, Tom Stiris, Silvia-Maria Stoicescu, Cecilia Martínez-Costa, Mireilla Vanpee, Magnus Domellöf, Eurídice Castañeda-Gutiérrez, Sagar K. Thakkar, and Irma Silva-Zolezzi. 2020. "Subclinical Mastitis in a European Multicenter Cohort: Prevalence, Impact on Human Milk (HM) Composition, and Association with Infant HM Intake and Growth" Nutrients 12, no. 1: 105. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010105

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