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Open AccessArticle

Developing an Impedance Based Equation for Fat-Free Mass of Black Preadolescent South African Children

1
Department Human Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X323, Arcadia 0007, South Africa
2
Department of Statistics, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2021; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092021
Received: 17 July 2019 / Revised: 10 August 2019 / Accepted: 27 August 2019 / Published: 28 August 2019
Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a practical alternative to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for determining body composition in children. Currently, there are no population specific equations available for predicting fat-free mass (FFM) in South African populations. We determined agreement between fat-free mass measured by DXA (FFMDXA) and FFM calculated from published multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance prediction equations (FFMBIA); and developed a new equation for predicting FFM for preadolescent black South African children. Cross-sectional data on a convenience sample of 84 children (mean age 8.5 ± 1.4 years; 44 {52%} girls) included body composition assessed using Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (FFMDXA) and impedance values obtained from the Seca mBCA 514 Medical Body Composition analyzer used to calculate FFM using 17 published prediction equations (FFMBIA). Only two equations yielded FFM estimates that were similar to the DXA readings (p > 0.05). According to the Bland–Altman analysis, the mean differences in FFM (kg) were 0.15 (LOA: −2.68; 2.37) and 0.01 (LOA: −2.68; 2.66). Our new prediction equation, F F M = 105.20 + 0.807 × S e x + 0.174 × W e i g h t + 0.01 × R e a c t a n c e + 15.71 × log ( R I ) , yielded an adjusted R2 = 0.9544. No statistical shrinkage was observed during cross-validation. A new equation enables the BIA-based prediction of FFM in the assessment of preadolescent black South African children. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA); body composition; fat-free mass (FFM); dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); preadolescent; prediction equations bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA); body composition; fat-free mass (FFM); dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); preadolescent; prediction equations
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van Zyl, A.; White, Z.; Ferreira, J.; Wenhold, F.A.M. Developing an Impedance Based Equation for Fat-Free Mass of Black Preadolescent South African Children. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2021.

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