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The Concentration of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Human Milk Is Related to Their Habitual but Not Current Intake

1
Department of Clinical Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Warsaw, E Ciolka Str. 27, 01-445 Warsaw, Poland
2
Department of Metabolomics Food and Nutrition Institute, 61/63 Powsińska Str., 02-903 Warsaw, Poland
3
Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Warsaw, Litewska Str. 14/16, 00-575 Warsaw, Poland
4
Laboratory of Human Milk and Lactation Research at Regional Human Milk Bank in Holy Family Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Neonatology, Medical University of Warsaw, Zwirki i Wigury Str. 63A, 02-091 Warsaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1585; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071585
Received: 11 June 2019 / Revised: 8 July 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Milk and Lactation)
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Abstract

This study determined fatty acid (FA) concentrations in maternal milk and investigated the association between omega-3 fatty acid levels and their maternal current dietary intake (based on three-day dietary records) and habitual dietary intake (based on intake frequency of food products). Tested material comprised 32 samples of human milk, coming from exclusively breastfeeding women during their first month of lactation. Milk fatty acids were analyzed as fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) by gas chromatography using a Hewlett-Packard 6890 gas chromatograph with MS detector 5972A. We did not observe any correlation between current dietary intake of omega-3 FAs and their concentrations in human milk. However, we observed that the habitual intake of fatty fish affected omega-3 FA concentrations in human milk. Kendall’s rank correlation coefficients were 0.25 (p = 0.049) for DHA, 0.27 (p = 0.03) for EPA, and 0.28 (p = 0.02) for ALA. Beef consumption was negatively correlated with DHA concentrations in human milk (r = −0.25; p = 0.046). These findings suggest that current omega-3 FA intake does not translate directly into their concentration in human milk. On the contrary, their habitual intake seems to markedly influence their milk concentration. View Full-Text
Keywords: human milk; omega-3 fatty acids; docosahexaenoic acid; eicosapentaenoic acid; α-linolenic acid; dietary intake; food frequency questionnaire human milk; omega-3 fatty acids; docosahexaenoic acid; eicosapentaenoic acid; α-linolenic acid; dietary intake; food frequency questionnaire
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Bzikowska-Jura, A.; Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, A.; Jasińska-Melon, E.; Mojska, H.; Olędzka, G.; Wesołowska, A.; Szostak-Węgierek, D. The Concentration of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Human Milk Is Related to Their Habitual but Not Current Intake. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1585.

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