Conceptualization: Initiated by G.L., advised upon and/or agreed by all other authors A.A., L.S.A.A., A.E.B., F.B., I.B., A.W.B., A.C., M.-A.H., D.J.A.J., C.W.C.K., H.F.L., G.L., S.L., J.C.B.-M., A.P., G.R., S.W.R., S.B.-S., J.L.S., J.S.-S, A.T., R.T., C.L.V., W.C.W. and T.M.S.W.; Methodology: literature search to data extraction G.L., H.F.L. and R.T.; Meta-analysis: G.L.; Bradford-Hill Criteria content: A.A., L.S.A.A., A.E.B., F.B., I.B., A.W.B., A.C., D.J.A.J., C.W.C.K., H.F.L., G.L., S.L., J.C.B.-M., A.P., G.R., S.W.R., J.L.S, A.T., R.T., C.L.V., W.C.W. and T.M.S.W.; Validation: Verification of the accuracy of extracted data: G.L., H.F.L., R.T.; Formal analysis: Meta-analyses executed by G.L.; Investigation: Agreement to use PRISMA and Bradford-Hill Criteria, all authors A.A., L.S.A.A., A.E.B., F.B., I.B., A.W.B., A.C., M.-A.H., D.J.A.J., C.W.C.K., H.F.L., G.L., S.L., J.C.B.-M., A.P., G.R., S.W.R, S.B.-S., J.L.S., A.T., R.T., C.L.V., W.C.W. and T.M.S.W.; Resources: Meta-analysis tools provided by G.L. and H.F.L. Data curation: for original extracted data G.L. and H.F.L., for copies all authors: A.A., L.S.A.A., A.E.B., F.B., I.B., A.W.B., A.C., M.-A.H., D.J.A.J., C.W.C.K., H.F.L, G.L., S.L., J.C.B.-M., A.P., G.R., S.W.R., S.B.-S., J.L.S., A.T., R.T., C.L.V., W.C.W. and T.M.S.W.; Writing—original: First draft G.L.; Writing—review and editing: All the authors made contributions to the draft content, reviewing and editing or agreeing with the content: A.A., L.S.A.A., A.E.B., F.B., I.B., A.W.B., A.C., M.-A.H, D.J.A.J, C.W.C.K., H.F.L., G.L., S.L., J.C.B.-M., A.P., G.R., S.W.R., S.B.-S., J.L.S., J.S.-S., A.T., R.T., C.L.V., W.C.W. and T.M.S.W. Criteria for authorship read and met: A.A., L.S.A.A., A.E.B., F.B., I.B., A.W.B., A.C., M.-A.H., D.J.A.J., C.W.C.K., H.F.L., G.L., S.L., J.C.B.-M., A.P., G.R., S.W.R., J.L.S., R.T., C.L.V., W.C.W. and T.M.S.W. Not meeting authorship criteria but contributing in other ways and agreed with the manuscript content and conclusions: A.C., A.P., A.T. and S.B.-S.
Conflicts of Interest
Anette Buyken, Antonio Ceriello, Salwa Rizkalla, Richard Taylor, Antonia Trichopoulou and Walter Willett declare no conflict of interests. Arne Astrup is a consultant/member of advisory boards for McCain Foods Limited, Canada, Weight Watchers, USA. He is a recipient of honoraria as a speaker for a wide range of Danish and international concerns and receives royalties from popular diet and cookery books using GI/GL. Livia Augustin has received an honorarium from the Nutrition Foundation of Italy (NFI) to co-organize a GI/GL summit. Sara Baer-Sinnott is the president of Oldways, a non-profit food and nutrition organization that receives support from a wide variety of organizations. Alan Barclay is a board member and consultant to the Glycemic Index Foundation, an international not-for-profit organisation which endorses healthy low GI food products by means of a certified GI symbol. He is a co-author of lay books about the glycemic index of foods and sweeteners. Inger Bjorck is retired professor from Lund University, Sweden where she has managed the Antidiabetic Food Centre, a non-profitable research centre including the academy, the health care system and representatives from the industry. She is inventor and owner of intellectual property related to the use of certain proteins, specific probiotics and probiotics to improve glycemic regulation and metabolism. Jennie Brand-Miller is President of the Glycaemic Index Foundation, an international not-for-profit organisation which endorses healthy low GI food products by means of a certified GI symbol. She manages a glycemic index testing service at the University of Sydney and is the co-author of lay books about the glycemic index of foods. Furio Brighenti is affiliated to a department of the University of Parma that does Glycemic index analysis as a service to third parties. Marie-Ann Ha, is senior lecturer with Anglia Ruskin University, a Directors with Cibus Biscuits Ltd, a company developing a product for people with additional energy requirements and is Director of East Anglia Food Link a not for profit organization working to increase local sourcing of local products. David Jenkins David Jenkins has received research grants from Saskatchewan and Alberta Pulse Growers Associations, the Agricultural Bioproducts Innovation Program through the Pulse Research Network, the Advanced Foods and Material Network, Loblaw Companies Ltd., Unilever Canada and Netherlands, Barilla, the Almond Board of California, Agriculture and Agri-food Canada, Pulse Canada, Kellogg’s Company, Canada, Quaker Oats, Canada, Procter and Gamble Technical Centre Ltd., Bayer Consumer Care, Springfield, NJ, Pepsi/Quaker, International Nut and Dried Fruit (INC), Soy Foods Association of North America, the Coca-Cola Company (investigator initiated, unrestricted grant), Solae, Haine Celestial, the Sanitarium Company, Orafti, the International Tree Nut Council Nutrition Research and Education Foundation, the Peanut Institute, Soy Nutrition Institute (SNI), the Canola and Flax Councils of Canada, the Calorie Control Council, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI), and the Ontario Research Fund (ORF). He has received in-kind supplies for trials as research support from the Almond Board of California, Walnut Council of California, American Peanut Council, Barilla, Unilever, Unico, Primo, Loblaw Companies, Quaker (Pepsico), Pristine Gourmet, Bunge Limited, Kellogg Canada, WhiteWave Foods. He has been on the speaker’s panel, served on the scientific advisory board, and/or received travel support and/or honoraria from the Almond Board of California, Canadian Agriculture Policy Institute, Loblaw Companies Ltd., the Griffin Hospital (for the development of the NuVal scoring system), the Coca-Cola Company, EPICURE, Danone, Diet Quality Photo Navigation (DQPN), Better Therapeutics (FareWell), Verywell, True Health Initiative (THI), Institute of Food Technologists (IFT), Soy Nutrition Institute (SNI), Herbalife Nutrition Institute (HNI), Saskatchewan and Alberta Pulse Growers Associations, Sanitarium Company, Orafti, the American Peanut Council, the International Tree Nut Council Nutrition Research and Education Foundation, the Peanut Institute, Herbalife International, Pacific Health Laboratories, Nutritional Fundamentals for Health (NFH), Barilla, Metagenics, Bayer Consumer Care, Unilever Canada and Netherlands, Solae, Kellogg, Quaker Oats, Procter and Gamble, Abbott Laboratories, Dean Foods, the California Strawberry Commission, Haine Celestial, PepsiCo, the Alpro Foundation, Pioneer Hi-Bred International, DuPont Nutrition and Health, Spherix Consulting and WhiteWave Foods, the Advanced Foods and Material Network, the Canola and Flax Councils of Canada, Agri-Culture and Agri-Food Canada, the Canadian Agri-Food Policy Institute, Pulse Canada, the Soy Foods Association of North America, the Nutrition Foundation of Italy (NFI), Nutra-Source Diagnostics, the McDougall Program, the Toronto Knowledge Translation Group (St. Michael’s Hospital), the Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, the Canadian Nutrition Society (CNS), the American Society of Nutrition (ASN), Arizona State University, Paolo Sorbini Foundation and the Institute of Nutrition, Metabolism and Diabetes. He received an honorarium from the United States Department of Agriculture to present the 2013 W.O. Atwater Memorial Lecture. He received the 2013 Award for Excellence in Research from the International Nut and Dried Fruit Council. He received funding and travel support from the Canadian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism to produce mini cases for the Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA). He is a member of the International Carbohydrate Quality Consortium (ICQC). His wife, Alexandra L. Jenkins, is a director and partner of Glycemic Index Laboratories, Inc., and his sister, Caroline Brydson, received funding through a grant from the St. Michael’s Hospital Foundation to develop a cookbook for one of his studies. Cyril Kendall has received research grants, travel funding, consultant fees, honoraria, or has served on the scientific advisory board for Abbott Laboratories, Advanced Food Materials Network, Agrifoods and Agriculture Canada (AAFC), Almond Board of California, American Peanut Council, American Pistachio Growers, Barilla, California Strawberry Commission, Calorie Control Council, Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), Canola Council of Canada, The Coca Cola Company (investigator initiated, unrestricted), Danone, General Mills, Hain Celestial, International Tree Nut Council, Kellogg, Kraft, Loblaw Brands Ltd, Nutrition Foundation of Italy, Oldways Preservation Trust, Orafti, Paramount Farms, Peanut Institute, Pepsi-Co, Pulse Canada, Saskatchewan Pulse Growers, Solae, Sun-Maid, Tate and Lyle and Unilever. Carlo La Vecchia is member of the Advisory Board of the Nutrition Foundation of Italy (NFI, honorary) and received honoraria from Soremartec and MSL Italia. Geoffrey Livesey, husband of author HFL holds shares in Independent Nutrition Logic Ltd, a consultancy. He and his wife have benefitted from research grants, travel funding, consultant fees, and honoraria from the American Association for the Advancement of Science (USA), the All Party Parliamentary Group for Diabetes (London, UK). Almond Board of California (USA), BENEO GmbH (DE), Biotechnology and Biosciences Research Council (UK), British Nutrition Foundation(UK), Calorie Control Council (USA), Cantox (CA), Colloides Naturel International (FR), Coca Cola (UK), Danisco (UK and Singapore), Diabetes Nutrition Study Group (EASD, EU), DiabetesUK (UK), Elsevier Inc. (USA), European Commission (EU), European Polyol Association (Brussels), Eureka (UK), Food and Agricultural Organization (Rome), Granules India (Ind), General Mills (USA), Health Canada (CA), Institute of Food Research (UK), International Carbohydrate Quality Consortium (CA), Institute of Medicine (Washington, DC), International Life Sciences Institute (EU and USA), Life Sciences Research Office, FASEB (USA), Nutrition Society of Australia, Knights Fitness (UK), Leatherhead Food Research (UK), LitghterLife (UK), Matsutani (JPN), Medical Research Council (UK), MSL Group (UK), Porter Novelli (UK), Sudzuker (DE), Sugar Nutrition/WSRO (UK), Tate and Lyle (UK), The Food Group (USA), Weight Watchers (UK), Wiley-Blackwell (UK). World Health Organisation (Geneva). He is a member of the EASD Nutrition Guideline Committee. Helen Livesey, wife of author GL, holds shares in Independent Nutrition Logic Ltd (UK) and has benefitted from organisations declared by him. Simin Liu received consulting fees from Stanford University, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, honoraria from General Mills Co, and is a consultant to Barilla, Palma, Italy. Andrea Poli is the President of the Nutrition Foundation of Italy (NFI) a non-profit organization partially supported by Italian and non-Italian Food Companies. Jordi Salas-Salvadó serves on the board of, and has received grant through, his institution from the International Nut and Dried Fruit Council and the Eroski Foundation. He serves on the Executive Committee of the Instituto Danone Spain and on the Scientific Committee of the Danone International Institute. He has received research support from the Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain; the Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, Spain; the Departament de Salut Pública de la Generalitat de Catalunya, Catalonia, Spain; and the European Commission. Further research support has come from the California Walnut Commission, Sacramento CA, USA; the Patrimonio Comunal Olivarero, Spain; the La Morella Nuts, Spain; and Borges S.A., Spain. He reports receiving consulting fees or travel expenses from Danone; California Walnut Commission, the Eroski Foundation, the Instituto Danone–Spain, Nuts for Life, Australian Nut Industry Council, Nestlé, Abbot Laboratories, and Font Vella Lanjarón. He is on the Clinical Practice Guidelines Expert Committee of the European Association for the study of Diabetes (EASD), and has served on the Scientific Committee of the Spanish Food and Safety Agency, and the Spanish Federation of the Scientific Societies of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics. He is an Executive Board Member of the Diabetes and Nutrition Study Group (DNSG) of the EASD. Gabriele Riccardi is a member of the scientific advisory board of Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition. John L Sievenpiper has received research support from the Canadian Foundation for Innovation, Ontario Research Fund, Province of Ontario Ministry of Research and Innovation and Science, Canadian Institutes of health Research (CIHR), Diabetes Canada, PSI Foundation, Banting and Best Diabetes Centre (BBDC), American Society for Nutrition (ASN), INC International Nut and Dried Fruit Council Foundation, National Dried Fruit Trade Association, The Tate and Lyle Nutritional Research Fund at the University of Toronto, The Glycemic Control and Cardiovascular Disease in Type 2 Diabetes Fund at the University of Toronto (a fund established by the Alberta Pulse Growers), and the Nutrition Trialists Fund at the University of Toronto (a fund established by an inaugural donation from the Calorie Control Council). He has received in-kind food donations to support a randomized controlled trial from the Almond Board of California, California Walnut Commission, American Peanut Council, Barilla, Unilever, Unico/Primo, Loblaw Companies, Quaker, Kellogg Canada, and WhiteWave Foods. He has received travel support, speaker fees and/or honoraria from Diabetes Canada, Mott’s LLP, Dairy Farmers of Canada, FoodMinds LLC, International Sweeteners Association, Nestlé, Pulse Canada, Canadian Society for Endocrinology and Metabolism (CSEM), GI Foundation, Abbott, Biofortis, ASN, Northern Ontario School of Medicine, INC Nutrition Research and Education Foundation, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), and Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine. He has or has had ad hoc consulting arrangements with Perkins Coie LLP, Tate and Lyle, and Wirtschaftliche Vereinigung Zucker e.V. He is a member of the European Fruit Juice Association Scientific Expert Panel. He is on the Clinical Practice Guidelines Expert Committees of Diabetes Canada, European Association for the study of Diabetes (EASD), Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS), and Obesity Canada. He serves or has served as an unpaid scientific advisor for the Food, Nutrition, and Safety Program (FNSP) and the Technical Committee on Carbohydrates of the International Life Science Institute (ILSI) North America. He is a member of the International Carbohydrate Quality Consortium (ICQC), Executive Board Member of the Diabetes and Nutrition Study Group (DNSG) of the EASD, and Director of the Toronto 3D Knowledge Synthesis and Clinical Trials foundation. His wife is an employee of Sobeys Inc. Thomas Wolever is a part owner and receives payment as the President and Medical Director of Glycaemic Index Laboratories, Inc., (GI Labs, a contract research organization) and Glycemic Index Testing, Inc., (GI Testing, which supplies services to GI Labs) Toronto, Canada. He has authored or co-authored several books on the glycemic index for which has received royalties from Phillipa Sandall Publishing Services and CABI Publishers. He has received research support, consultant fees or honoraria from or served on the scientific advisory board for Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Canadian Diabetes Association, Dairy Farmers of Canada, Agriculture Agri-Food Canada, Public Health Agency of Canada, GI Labs, GI Testing, Abbott, Proctor and Gamble, Mars Foods, McCain Foods, Bunge, Temasek Polytechnic Singapore, Northwestern University, Royal Society of London, Glycemic Index Symbol program, CreaNutrition AG, McMaster University, University of Manitoba, University of Alberta, Canadian Society for Nutritional Sciences, National Sports and Conditioning Association, Faculty of Public Health and Nutrition—Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon, Diabetes and Nutrition Study Group of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). His wife is part owner of Glycemic Index Laboratories, Inc., and Glycemic Index Testing, Inc., and receives payment as chief financial officer of both corporations. All authors other than HFL and RT are members of the International Carbohydrate Quality Consortium. The funding source, other industries or commercial enterprises other than the author affiliations had no role in the initiation, conception, execution, interpretation, including commenting, editing, choice of journal and submission of the manuscript for publication.