Next Article in Journal
Nutritional Interventions to Improve Clinical Outcomes in Ovarian Cancer: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials
Next Article in Special Issue
Population Approaches Targeting Metabolic Syndrome Focusing on Japanese Trials
Previous Article in Journal
Immunomodulatory and Metabolic Changes after Gnetin-C Supplementation in Humans
Previous Article in Special Issue
Waist Circumference and Abdominal Volume Index Can Predict Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescents, but only When the Criteria of the International Diabetes Federation are Employed for the Diagnosis
Open AccessArticle

Metabolic Syndrome in Arab Adults with Low Bone Mineral Density

Chair for Biomarkers of Chronic Diseases, Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
Diabetes Care Center, King Salman Bin Abdulaziz Hospital, Riyadh 12769, Saudi Arabia
Specialized Diabetes and Endocrine Center, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh 12231, Saudi Arabia
College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh 22490, Saudi Arabia
King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh 11481, Saudi Arabia
Department of Medicine, Ministry of the National Guard—Health Affairs, Riyadh 14611, Saudi Arabia
Department of Public Health, Epidemiology and Health Economics, University of Liège, 4000 Liège, Belgium
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1405;
Received: 16 May 2019 / Revised: 13 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
There are discrepancies in the reports on the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components with bone mineral density (BMD) and hence more population-based studies on this subject are needed. In this context, this observational study was aimed to investigate the association between T-scores of BMD at lumbar L1–L4 and full MetS and its individual components. A total of 1587 participants (84.7% females), >35 years and with risk factors associated with bone loss were recruited from February 2013 to August 2016. BMD was done at L1–L4 using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). T-Scores were calculated. Fasting blood samples and anthropometrics were done at recruitment. Fasting lipid profile and glucose were measured. Screening for full MetS and its components was done according to the National Cholesterol Education Programme Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) criteria. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds of having full MetS increased significantly from the lowest T-score tertile to the highest one in both sexes (OR, odd ratio (95% CI, confidence interval) of tertile 2 and 3 at 1.49 (0.8 to 2.8) and 2.46 (1.3 to 4.7), p = 0.02 in males and 1.35 (1.0 to 1.7) and 1.45 (1.1 to1.9), p < 0.01 in females). The odds remained significant even after adjustments with age, body mass index (BMI), and other risk factors associated with bone loss. Among the components of MetS, only central obesity showed a significant positive association with T-score. The study suggests a significant positive association of T-score (spine) with full MetS irrespective of sex, and among the components of MetS this positive association was seen specifically with central obesity. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolic syndrome; bone mineral density; obesity; insulin resistance; bone health; osteoporosis metabolic syndrome; bone mineral density; obesity; insulin resistance; bone health; osteoporosis
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Wani, K.; Yakout, S.M.; Ansari, M.G.A.; Sabico, S.; Hussain, S.D.; Alokail, M.S.; Sheshah, E.; Aljohani, N.J.; Al-Saleh, Y.; Reginster, J.-Y.; Al-Daghri, N.M. Metabolic Syndrome in Arab Adults with Low Bone Mineral Density. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1405.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

Back to TopTop