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Use of vitamin and mineral supplements among adolescents living in Germany—Results from EsKiMo II

Department of Epidemiology and Health Monitoring, Robert Koch Institute, 12101 Berlin, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1208;
Received: 12 April 2019 / Revised: 21 May 2019 / Accepted: 24 May 2019 / Published: 28 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Behavior and Physical Activity in Children and Adolescents)
Dietary supplements may contribute to nutrient intake; however, actual data on dietary supplement use among adolescents living in Germany are rare. The aim of this analysis was to describe the current use of dietary supplements, its determinants, and reasons of use. Changes in supplement use over time were evaluated by comparing the results with those from EsKiMo I (2006). Data from the Eating Study as a KiGGS Module EsKiMo II (2015–2017) were used to analyze supplement intake according to sociodemographic, health characteristics, and physical exercise behavior of 12–17-year-olds (n = 1356). Supplement use during the past four weeks was assessed by a standardized computer assisted personal interview. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the association between supplement use and its determinants. Between 2015–2017, 16.4% (95%-CI: 13.0–19.7%) of the adolescents used dietary supplements, and its use decreased with lower levels of physical exercise and overweight. Most supplement users used only one supplement, often containing both vitamins and minerals. The most frequently supplemented nutrients were vitamin C and magnesium. The main reported reason to use supplements was ‘to improve health’. Prevalence of supplement use was slightly lower in 2015-2017 than in 2006 (18.5%; 95%-CI: 15.8–21.2%). The results underline the importance of including nutrient intake through dietary supplements in nutrition surveys. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin; mineral; dietary supplements; adolescents; EsKiMo vitamin; mineral; dietary supplements; adolescents; EsKiMo
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Perlitz, H.; Mensink, G.B.; Lage Barbosa, C.; Richter, A.; Brettschneider, A.-K.; Lehmann, F.; Patelakis, E.; Frank, M.; Heide, K.; Haftenberger, M. Use of vitamin and mineral supplements among adolescents living in Germany—Results from EsKiMo II. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1208.

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