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Pre-Pregnancy Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Case-Control Study

1
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Granada, 18016 Granada, Spain
2
Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública-CIBERESP), 28029 Madrid, Spain
3
Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.GRANADA, 18071 Granada, Spain
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Obstetrics and Gynecology Service, Jaen Hospital Complex, 23007 Jaén, Spain
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Obstetrics and Gynecology Service, Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, 18014 Granada, Spain
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Departament of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Granada, 18016 Granada, Spain
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Women’s Health Research Unit, Barts and the London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University London, London E1 4NS, UK
8
Multidisciplinary Evidence Synthesis Hub (mEsh), Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1003; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051003
Received: 22 February 2019 / Revised: 26 April 2019 / Accepted: 30 April 2019 / Published: 1 May 2019
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Abstract

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), an important public health problem that affects mothers and offspring, is a common metabolic disorder. We evaluated the effect of the pre-pregnancy Mediterranean diet (MD) level of exposure on the odds of GDM development. A case-control study (291 GDM cases and 1175 controls without GDM) was conducted in pregnant women. Pre-pregnancy dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire to calculate an MD adherence index (range score 0–9: low ≤ 2; middle 3–4; high 5–6; very high ≥ 7). Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models including age, BMI, family history of diabetes mellitus, previous GDM, miscarriages, and gravidity. Overall, middle-high MD adherence was 216/291 (74.2%) and very high adherence was 17/291 (5.8%) in cases. In controls the corresponding figures were 900/1175 (76.6%) and 73/1175 (6.2%), respectively. Compared to low adherence, high MD adherence was associated with GDM reduction (aOR 0.61, 95% CI 0.39,0.94; p = 0.028), and very high MD adherence was even more strongly associated (aOR 0.33, 95% CI 0.15, 0.72; p = 0.005). The protective effect of adherence to the MD prior to pregnancy should be considered as a preventive tool against the development of GDM. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mediterranean diet (MD); gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); pregnancy; maternal nutrition; lifestyles Mediterranean diet (MD); gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); pregnancy; maternal nutrition; lifestyles
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Olmedo-Requena, R.; Gómez-Fernández, J.; Amezcua-Prieto, C.; Mozas-Moreno, J.; Khan, K.S.; Jiménez-Moleón, J.J. Pre-Pregnancy Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Case-Control Study. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1003.

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