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Effects of Inulin Propionate Ester Incorporated into Palatable Food Products on Appetite and Resting Energy Expenditure: A Randomised Crossover Study

Section for Nutrition Research, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 0NN, UK
Stable Isotope Biochemistry Laboratory, Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, University of Glasgow, East Kilbride, Glasgow G75 0QF, Scotland
School of Computing, Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley Campus, Paisley PA1 2BE, Scotland
Department of Surgery and Cancer, Computational and Systems Medicine, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ, UK
Institute of Health Futures, Murdoch University, South Street, Western Australia 6150, Australia
School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 861;
Received: 1 March 2019 / Revised: 9 April 2019 / Accepted: 12 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
Supplementation with inulin-propionate ester (IPE), which delivers propionate to the colon, suppresses ad libitum energy intake and stimulates the release of satiety hormones acutely in humans, and prevents weight gain. In order to determine whether IPE remains effective when incorporated into food products (FP), IPE needs to be added to a widely accepted food system. A bread roll and fruit smoothie were produced. Twenty-one healthy overweight and obese humans participated. Participants attended an acclimatisation visit and a control visit where they consumed un-supplemented food products (FP). Participants then consumed supplemented-FP, containing 10 g/d inulin or IPE for six days followed by a post-supplementation visit in a randomised crossover design. On study visits, supplemented-FP were consumed for the seventh time and ad libitum energy intake was assessed 420 min later. Blood samples were collected to assess hormones and metabolites. Resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured using indirect calorimetry. Taste and appearance ratings were similar between FP. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly different between treatments, due to a decreased intake following IPE-FP. These observations were not related to changes in blood hormones and metabolites. There was an increase in REE following IPE-FP. However, this effect was lost after correcting for changes in fat free mass. Our results suggest that IPE suppresses appetite and may alter REE following its incorporation into palatable food products. View Full-Text
Keywords: SCFA; propionate; appetite; energy intake; energy expenditure SCFA; propionate; appetite; energy intake; energy expenditure
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Byrne, C.S.; Chambers, E.S.; Preston, T.; Tedford, C.; Brignardello, J.; Garcia-Perez, I.; Holmes, E.; Wallis, G.A.; Morrison, D.J.; Frost, G.S. Effects of Inulin Propionate Ester Incorporated into Palatable Food Products on Appetite and Resting Energy Expenditure: A Randomised Crossover Study. Nutrients 2019, 11, 861.

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