Next Article in Journal
The Impact of OMEGA-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation on Insulin Resistance and Content of Adipocytokines and Biologically Active Lipids in Adipose Tissue of High-Fat Diet Fed Rats
Previous Article in Journal
The Germ Fraction Inhibits Iron Bioavailability of Maize: Identification of an Approach to Enhance Maize Nutritional Quality via Processing and Breeding
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 834;

The Role of Muscle Decline in Type 2 Diabetes Development: A 5-Year Prospective Observational Cohort Study

Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Internal Medicine, Medical University of Bialystok, Poland M.C. Skłodowskiej-Curie 24A, 15-276 Bialystok, Poland
Clinical Research Centre, Medical University of Bialystok, Poland; M.C. Skłodowskiej-Curie 24A, 15-276 Bialystok, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 March 2019 / Revised: 1 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 12 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sarcopenia and Nutritional Status)
PDF [257 KB, uploaded 17 April 2019]


The major risk factors of T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus) development are still under investigation. We evaluate the possible risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in adult subjects during a five-year prospective cohort study. We recruited 1160 subjects who underwent oral glucose tolerance test, anthropometric measurements, and body composition and body fat distribution analysis at a baseline visit and again at follow-up after approximately five years. The conclusions of this study are based on observation of 219 subjects who attended both the first and follow-up visits. The fasting serum insulin was measured, and HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance) was calculated. During the follow-up period, T2DM was diagnosed in 7.4% of participants, impaired fasting glucose in 37.7%, and impaired glucose tolerance in 9.3%. Logistic regression models, adjusted for age, were constructed. The changes in glucose concentration, visceral fat tissue content, insulin resistance, and %loss of muscle mass were chosen as the potential predictors for T2DM development. A set of independent variables was extracted. The constructed feature set comprised change in HOMA-IR (OR (odds ratio) = 1.01, p < 0.01) and change in %loss of muscle mass (OR = 0.84, p < 0.03). With an aim to validate the prediction capability using the selected attributes, a support vector machine classifier and leave-one-out cross-validation procedure was applied, yielding 92.78% classification accuracy. Our results show the correlation between the %loss of muscle mass and T2DM development in adults, independent of changes in insulin resistance. View Full-Text
Keywords: Type 2 diabetes; muscle decline; observational cohort study; insulin resistance Type 2 diabetes; muscle decline; observational cohort study; insulin resistance
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Maliszewska, K.; Adamska-Patruno, E.; Goscik, J.; Lipinska, D.; Citko, A.; Krahel, A.; Miniewska, K.; Fiedorczuk, J.; Moroz, M.; Gorska, M.; Kretowski, A. The Role of Muscle Decline in Type 2 Diabetes Development: A 5-Year Prospective Observational Cohort Study. Nutrients 2019, 11, 834.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top