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Improvement in Diabetic Retinopathy through Protection against Retinal Apoptosis in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Rats Mediated by Ethanol Extract of Osteomeles schwerinae C.K. Schneid

1
Clinical Medicine Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon 34054, Korea
2
Korean Convergence Medicine, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 34113, Korea
3
Herbal Medicine Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon 34054, Korea
4
Department of Oral Pathology, School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896, Korea
5
Clinical Research Coordination Team, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon 34054, Korea
6
Department of Life Science. Gachon University, 1342, Seongnamdaero, Seongnam, Gyeonggido 13120, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030546
Received: 23 January 2019 / Revised: 27 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 4 March 2019
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Abstract

Retinal apoptosis plays a critical role in the progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR), a common diabetic complication. Currently, the tight control of blood glucose levels is the standard approach to prevent or delay the progression of DR. However, prevalence of DR among diabetic patients remains high. Focusing on natural nutrients or herbal medicines that can prevent or delay the onset of diabetic complications, we administered an ethanol extract of the aerial portion of Osteomeles schwerinae (OSSCE), a Chinese herbal medicine, over a period of 17 weeks to spontaneously diabetic Torii (SDT) rats. OSSCE was found to ameliorate retinal apoptosis through the regulation of advanced glycation end product (AGE) accumulation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial function via the inhibition of NF-κB activity, in turn, through the downregulation of PKCδ, P47phox, and ERK1/2. We further demonstrated in 25 mM glucose-treated human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) that hyperoside (3-O-galactoside-quercetin), quercitrin (3-O-rhamnoside-quercetin), and 2″-O-acetylvitexin (8-C-(2″-O-acetyl-glucoside)-apigenin) were the active components of OSSCE that mediated its pharmacological action. Our results provide evidence that OSSCE is a powerful agent that may directly mediate a delay in the development or disease improvement in patients of DR. View Full-Text
Keywords: Osteomeles schwerinae; diabetic retinopathy (DR); spontaneously diabetic Torii (SDT) rat; human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs); advanced glycation end products (AGEs); retinal apoptosis; oxidative stress; mitochondrial function; adjunctive effect; combination therapy Osteomeles schwerinae; diabetic retinopathy (DR); spontaneously diabetic Torii (SDT) rat; human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs); advanced glycation end products (AGEs); retinal apoptosis; oxidative stress; mitochondrial function; adjunctive effect; combination therapy
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Kim, C.-S.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y.S.; Jo, K.; Lee, Y.M.; Jung, D.H.; Lee, I.S.; Kim, J.-H.; Kim, J.S. Improvement in Diabetic Retinopathy through Protection against Retinal Apoptosis in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Rats Mediated by Ethanol Extract of Osteomeles schwerinae C.K. Schneid. Nutrients 2019, 11, 546.

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