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Review

Macronutrient and Micronutrient Intake during Pregnancy: An Overview of Recent Evidence

by 1,*, 2 and 1
1
Monash Centre for Health Research and Implementation (MCHRI), School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne VIC 3168, Australia
2
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir 190006, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020443
Received: 10 January 2019 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 14 February 2019 / Published: 20 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Weight Gain)
Nutritional status during pregnancy can have a significant impact on maternal and neonatal health outcomes. Requirements for macronutrients such as energy and protein increase during pregnancy to maintain maternal homeostasis while supporting foetal growth. Energy restriction can limit gestational weight gain in women with obesity; however, there is insufficient evidence to support energy restriction during pregnancy. In undernourished women, balanced energy/protein supplementation may increase birthweight whereas high protein supplementation could have adverse effects on foetal growth. Modulating carbohydrate intake via a reduced glycaemic index or glycaemic load diet may prevent gestational diabetes and large-for-gestational-age infants. Certain micronutrients are also vital for improving pregnancy outcomes, including folic acid to prevent neural tube defects and iodine to prevent cretinism. Newly published studies support the use of calcium supplementation to prevent hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, particularly in women at high risk or with low dietary calcium intake. Although gaps in knowledge remain, research linking nutrition during pregnancy to maternofoetal outcomes has made dramatic advances over the last few years. In this review, we provide an overview of the most recent evidence pertaining to macronutrient and micronutrient requirements during pregnancy, the risks and consequences of deficiencies and the effects of supplementation on pregnancy outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: nutrition; macronutrients; micronutrients; pregnancy; reproduction; maternal health; neonatal outcomes nutrition; macronutrients; micronutrients; pregnancy; reproduction; maternal health; neonatal outcomes
MDPI and ACS Style

Mousa, A.; Naqash, A.; Lim, S. Macronutrient and Micronutrient Intake during Pregnancy: An Overview of Recent Evidence. Nutrients 2019, 11, 443. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020443

AMA Style

Mousa A, Naqash A, Lim S. Macronutrient and Micronutrient Intake during Pregnancy: An Overview of Recent Evidence. Nutrients. 2019; 11(2):443. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020443

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mousa, Aya, Amreen Naqash, and Siew Lim. 2019. "Macronutrient and Micronutrient Intake during Pregnancy: An Overview of Recent Evidence" Nutrients 11, no. 2: 443. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020443

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