This study aims to explore the association between malnutrition diagnosed according to both the Global Leadership Initiative of Malnutrition (GLIM) and the European Society of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) criteria and the onset of sarcopenia/severe sarcopenia, diagnosed according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People 2 (EWGSOP2) criterion, in the sarcopenia and physical impairment with advancing age (SarcoPhAge) cohort during a four-year follow-up. Adjusted Cox-regression and Kaplan-Meier curves were performed. Among the 534 community-dwelling participants recruited in the SarcoPhAge study, 510 were free from sarcopenia at baseline, of whom 336 had complete data (186 women and 150 men, mean age of 72.5 ± 5.8 years) to apply the GLIM and ESPEN criteria. A significantly higher risk of developing sarcopenia/severe sarcopenia during the four-year follow-up based on the GLIM [sarcopenia: Adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 3.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.73–6.05); severe sarcopenia: Adjusted HR = 2.87 (95% CI 1.25–6.56)] and ESPEN [sarcopenia: Adjusted HR = 4.28 (95% CI 1.86–9.86); severe sarcopenia: Adjusted HR = 3.86 (95% CI 1.29–11.54)] criteria was observed. Kaplan-Meier curves confirmed this relationship (log rank p
< 0.001 for all). These results highlighted the importance of malnutrition since it has been shown to be associated with an approximately fourfold higher risk of developing sarcopenia/severe sarcopenia during a four-year follow-up.
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