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Open AccessArticle

The In Vivo Net Energy Content of Resistant Starch and Its Effect on Macronutrient Oxidation in Healthy Adults

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Department of Nutrition & Food Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
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Australian Cancer Research Foundation, Sydney 2001, Australia
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Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
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Department of Pediatrics, Endocrinology Section, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
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Department of Biostatistics and Informatics, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
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Division of Geriatric Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
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Eastern Colorado Veterans Affairs Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Denver, CO 80045, USA
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Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
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Colorado Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2484; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102484
Received: 27 July 2019 / Revised: 17 September 2019 / Accepted: 18 September 2019 / Published: 16 October 2019
The in vivo net energy content of resistant starch (RS) has not been measured in humans so it has not been possible to account for the contribution of RS to dietary energy intake. We aimed to determine the in vivo net energy content of RS and examine its effect on macronutrient oxidation. This was a randomized, double-blind cross-over study. Eighteen healthy adults spent 24 h in a whole room indirect calorimeter to measure total energy expenditure (TEE), substrate oxidation, and postprandial metabolites in response to three diets: 1) digestible starch (DS), 2) RS (33% dietary fiber; RS), or 3) RS with high fiber (RSF, 56% fiber). The in vivo net energy content of RS and RSF are 2.74 ± 0.41 and 3.16 ± 0.27 kcal/g, respectively. There was no difference in TEE or protein oxidation between DS, RS, and RSF. However, RS and RSF consumption caused a 32% increase in fat oxidation (p = 0.04) with a concomitant 18% decrease in carbohydrate oxidation (p = 0.03) versus DS. Insulin responses were unaltered after breakfast but lower in RS and RSF after lunch, at equivalent glucose concentrations, indicating improved insulin sensitivity. The average in vivo net energy content of RS is 2.95 kcal/g, regardless of dietary fiber content. RS and RSF consumption increase fat and decrease carbohydrate oxidation with postprandial insulin responses lowered after lunch, suggesting improved insulin sensitivity at subsequent meals. View Full-Text
Keywords: resistant starch; net energy; in vivo; fiber; energy expenditure; fat oxidation; carbohydrate oxidation; food labeling resistant starch; net energy; in vivo; fiber; energy expenditure; fat oxidation; carbohydrate oxidation; food labeling
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Giles, E.D.; Brown, I.L.; MacLean, P.S.; Pan, Z.; Melanson, E.L.; Heard, K.J.; Cornier, M.-A.; Marden, T.; Higgins, J.A. The In Vivo Net Energy Content of Resistant Starch and Its Effect on Macronutrient Oxidation in Healthy Adults. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2484.

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