Inadequate maternal diet can adversely affect mother and child. Our aim was to assess adherence to the Spanish dietary guidelines and to the Mediterranean diet, to analyze changes in diet during pregnancy and post-partum, and to identify maternal factors associated with food consumption. A total of 793 healthy pregnant women were recruited during the first prenatal visit and followed until the post-partum period. Data from the clinical history, anthropometric measurements, and lifestyle habits were collected. Food consumption was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire. The results show that in pregnant women the consumption of healthy foods did not meet recommendations, whereas consumption of red and processed meat and sweet food exceeded recommendations. The results also show a medium adherence to the Mediterranean diet that remained unchanged throughout pregnancy. A significant decrease was observed in the consumption of fruits, followed by vegetables and then salted and sweet cereals from pregnancy to post-partum. A better adherence to the Mediterranean diet has been reported by pregnant women that are older, of higher social class, and higher education level, and who do not smoke nor drink (p
< 0.005). In conclusion, the diet of pregnant women from Spain departs from recommendations, medium adherence to the Mediterranean diet was maintained throughout the pregnancy and post-partum, and a decreasing consumption of healthy food from the first trimester to the post-partum period was observed. Maternal factors such as age, social class, education, and smoking influence diet quality.
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