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The Impact of Time of Day on Energy Expenditure: Implications for Long-Term Energy Balance

1
Department of Nutrition, Dietetics and Food, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3168 Australia
2
Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA), School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia
3
Behaviour-Brain-Body Research Centre, School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA 5072, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These two authors contribute equally.
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2383; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102383
Received: 12 August 2019 / Revised: 27 September 2019 / Accepted: 28 September 2019 / Published: 6 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Good Time to Eat: The Impact of Time of Day on Health Outcomes)
There is evidence to indicate that the central biological clock (i.e., our endogenous circadian system) plays a role in physiological processes in the body that impact energy regulation and metabolism. Cross-sectional data suggest that energy consumption later in the day and during the night is associated with weight gain. These findings have led to speculation that when, as well as what, we eat may be important for maintaining energy balance. Emerging literature suggests that prioritising energy intake to earlier during the day may help with body weight maintenance. Evidence from tightly controlled acute experimental studies indicates a disparity in the body’s ability to utilise (expend) energy equally across the day and night. Energy expenditure both at rest (resting metabolic rate) and after eating (thermic effect of food) is typically more efficient earlier during the day. In this review, we discuss the key evidence for a circadian pattern in energy utilisation and balance, which depends on meal timing. Whilst there is limited evidence that simply prioritising energy intake to earlier in the day is an effective strategy for weight loss, we highlight the potential benefits of considering the role of meal timing for improving metabolic health and energy balance. This review demonstrates that to advance our understanding of the contribution of the endogenous circadian system toward energy balance, targeted studies that utilise appropriate methodologies are required that focus on meal timing and frequency.
Keywords: basal metabolic rate; energy expenditure; circadian rhythms; substrate oxidation; meal timing basal metabolic rate; energy expenditure; circadian rhythms; substrate oxidation; meal timing
MDPI and ACS Style

Shaw, E.; Leung, G.K.; Jong, J.; Coates, A.M.; Davis, R.; Blair, M.; Huggins, C.E.; Dorrian, J.; Banks, S.; Kellow, N.J.; Bonham, M.P. The Impact of Time of Day on Energy Expenditure: Implications for Long-Term Energy Balance. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2383.

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