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Associations between Snacking and Weight Status among Adolescents 12–19 Years in the United States
Open AccessArticle

Eating Occasions, Obesity and Related Behaviors in Working Adults: Does it Matter When You Snack?

1
Department of Child, Family, and Population Health Nursing, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
2
Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
3
Cancer Prevention Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2320; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102320
Received: 19 August 2019 / Revised: 25 September 2019 / Accepted: 27 September 2019 / Published: 1 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Snacking Behaviors and Weight Status)
Reported relationships between frequency, type, and timing of eating occasions and obesity-risk among adults are mixed while associations with obesogenic eating behaviors remain unexplored. The Physical Activity and Changes in Eating (PACE) study was a group-randomized controlled trial to prevent weight gain among 34 small worksites in Seattle from 2005–2009. Baseline surveys assessed body mass index (BMI), obesogenic eating behaviors (e.g., fast food and distracted-eating), and eating occasions (i.e., snacks and meals) among 2265 employees. BMI and waist circumference were measured on a subset (n = 567). Time-periods for analyses included: morning (12:00 a.m. to 10:59 a.m.), mid-day (11:00 a.m. to 4:29 p.m.), and evening (4:30 p.m. to 11:59 p.m.). Multilevel linear models estimated associations between snack timing, obesity, and related behaviors while adjusting for meal timing, gender, and worksite random effects. Greater morning snacking was associated with increased fruit and vegetable consumption, while greater evening snacking was associated with higher BMI, higher obesogenic dietary index (intake of fast food, French fries, and soft drinks), and higher percent time eating while distracted. Associations with mid-day snacking were mixed. Patterns of association were consistent across repeated and objective measures. Findings suggest that evening snacking is more detrimental to healthy weight compared to snacking at other times of day. Reducing evening snacks may be an important and simple message for population-level obesity prevention efforts. View Full-Text
Keywords: snacking; obesity; obesogenic; behaviors snacking; obesity; obesogenic; behaviors
MDPI and ACS Style

Barrington, W.E.; Beresford, S.A.A. Eating Occasions, Obesity and Related Behaviors in Working Adults: Does it Matter When You Snack? Nutrients 2019, 11, 2320. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102320

AMA Style

Barrington WE, Beresford SAA. Eating Occasions, Obesity and Related Behaviors in Working Adults: Does it Matter When You Snack? Nutrients. 2019; 11(10):2320. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102320

Chicago/Turabian Style

Barrington, Wendy E.; Beresford, Shirley A.A. 2019. "Eating Occasions, Obesity and Related Behaviors in Working Adults: Does it Matter When You Snack?" Nutrients 11, no. 10: 2320. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102320

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Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

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