Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Elemental Metabolomics and Pregnancy Outcomes
Previous Article in Journal
Systematic Review and Bayesian Meta-analysis of the Dose-response Relationship between Folic Acid Intake and Changes in Blood Folate Concentrations
Previous Article in Special Issue
Selenium Intake in Iodine-Deficient Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women in New Zealand
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010072

Assessment of Dietary Intake and Nutrient Gaps, and Development of Food-Based Recommendations, among Pregnant and Lactating Women in Zinder, Niger: An Optifood Linear Programming Analysis

1
Program in International and Community Nutrition, Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
2
Department of Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK
3
Helen Keller International, Niamey 0000, Niger
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The two authors contributed equally.
Received: 20 November 2018 / Revised: 18 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 2 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micronutrients Intake and Status during Pregnancy and Lactation)
  |  
PDF [458 KB, uploaded 2 January 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Pregnant and lactating women in rural Niger are at high risk for inadequate intakes of multiple micronutrients. Thus, 24 h dietary recalls were conducted and analyzed for dietary intakes in this population (n = 202). Using linear programming analyses, micronutrient gaps in women’s diets were identified, food-based recommendations (FBR) to improve dietary micronutrient adequacy were developed, and various supplementation strategies were modelled. Energy intakes were below estimated requirements, and, for most micronutrients, >50% of women were at risk of inadequate intakes. Linear programming analyses indicated it would be difficult to select a diet that achieved recommended dietary allowances for all but three (vitamin B6, iron and zinc) of 11 modeled micronutrients. Consumption of one additional meal per day, and adherence to the selected FBR (daily consumption of dark green leafy vegetables, fermented milk, millet, pulses, and vitamin A fortified oil), would result in a low percentage of women at risk of inadequate intakes for eight modeled micronutrients (vitamin A, riboflavin, thiamin, B6, folate, iron, zinc, and calcium). Because the promotion of realistic FBRs likely will not ensure that a low percentage of women are at risk of inadequate intakes for all modeled micronutrients, multiple micronutrient supplementation or provision of nutrient-dense foods should be prioritized. View Full-Text
Keywords: linear programming; food-based recommendations; Optifood; micronutrient; deficiency; dietary intake; pregnant; lactation; women linear programming; food-based recommendations; Optifood; micronutrient; deficiency; dietary intake; pregnant; lactation; women
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wessells, K.R.; Young, R.R.; Ferguson, E.L.; Ouédraogo, C.T.; Faye, M.T.; Hess, S.Y. Assessment of Dietary Intake and Nutrient Gaps, and Development of Food-Based Recommendations, among Pregnant and Lactating Women in Zinder, Niger: An Optifood Linear Programming Analysis. Nutrients 2019, 11, 72.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top