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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 119;

Meal Enjoyment and Tolerance in Women and Men

Digestive System Research Unit, University Hospital Vall d’Hebron, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (Ciberehd), Departament de Medicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès), Spain
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas (Ciberdem), Metabolomics Platform, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43002 Tarragona, Spain
Biosfer Teslab S.L., 43201 Reus, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 November 2018 / Revised: 31 December 2018 / Accepted: 2 January 2019 / Published: 8 January 2019
PDF [1417 KB, uploaded 11 January 2019]


Various conditioning factors influence the sensory response to a meal (inducible factors). We hypothesized that inherent characteristics of the eater (constitutive factors) also play a role. The aim of this proof-of-concept study was to determine the role of gender, as an individual constitutive factor, on the meal-related experience. Randomized parallel trial in 10 women and 10 men, comparing the sensations before, during, and after stepwise ingestion of a comfort meal up to full satiation. Comparisons were performed by repeated Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) measures. During stepwise ingestion, satisfaction initially increased up to a peak, and later decreased down to a nadir at the point of full satiation. Interestingly, the amount of food consumed at the well-being peak was lower, and induced significantly less fullness in women than in men. Hence, men required a larger meal load and stronger homeostatic sensations to achieve satisfaction. The same pattern was observed at the level of full satiation: men ate more and still experienced positive well-being, whereas in women, well-being scores dropped below pre-meal level. The effect of gender on the ingestion experience suggests that other constitutive factors of the eater may also influence responses to meals. View Full-Text
Keywords: meal ingestion; post-prandial sensations; hedonic response; homeostatic sensations; gender differences; metabolomic response meal ingestion; post-prandial sensations; hedonic response; homeostatic sensations; gender differences; metabolomic response

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Monrroy, H.; Pribic, T.; Galan, C.; Nieto, A.; Amigo, N.; Accarino, A.; Correig, X.; Azpiroz, F. Meal Enjoyment and Tolerance in Women and Men. Nutrients 2019, 11, 119.

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