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Ginsenoside Rh2 Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Regulating the TLR4/PI3K/Akt/mTOR, Raf-1/MEK/ERK, and Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathways in Mice

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Department of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences and Chinese Medicine Resources, China Medical University, Taichung 413, Taiwan
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Department of Pharmacy, Kuang Tien General Hospital, Taichung 433, Taiwan
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Taichung City New Pharmacist Association, Taichung 420, Taiwan
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Department of Food Nutrition and Health Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung 413, Taiwan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1208; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091208
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 16 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
The anti-inflammatory effect of ginsenoside Rh2 (GRh2) has labeled it as one of the most important ginsenosides. The purpose of this study was to identify the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of GRh2 using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge lung-injury animal model. GRh2 reduced LPS-induced proinflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1β, and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10) production in lung tissues. GRh2 treatment decreased the histological alterations in the lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) protein content; total cell number also reduced in LPS-induced lung injury in mice. Moreover, GRh2 blocked iNOS, COX-2, the phosphorylation of IκB-α, ERK, JNK, p38, Raf-1, and MEK protein expression, which corresponds with the growth of HO-1, Nrf-2, catalase, SOD, and GPx expression in LPS-induced lung injury. An in vivo experimental study suggested that GRh2 has anti-inflammatory effects, and has potential therapeutic efficacy in major anterior segment lung diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: ginsenoside Rh2; lipopolysaccharide; acute lung injury; MEK; Nrf-2 ginsenoside Rh2; lipopolysaccharide; acute lung injury; MEK; Nrf-2
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Hsieh, Y.-H.; Deng, J.-S.; Chang, Y.-S.; Huang, G.-J. Ginsenoside Rh2 Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Regulating the TLR4/PI3K/Akt/mTOR, Raf-1/MEK/ERK, and Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathways in Mice. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1208.

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