Next Article in Journal
Dietary Intake and Beliefs of Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes in Cape Town, South Africa
Previous Article in Journal
Comparative Effects of Native and Defatted Flaxseeds on Intestinal Enzyme Activity and Lipid Metabolism in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet Containing Cholic Acid
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1182;

Body Mass Index, Vitamin D, and Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Department of Clinical Medicine Aarhus University, 8200 Aarhus, Denmark
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 August 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 24 August 2018 / Published: 28 August 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [4040 KB, uploaded 28 August 2018]   |  


The deficiency of vitamin D is prevalent all over the world. Studies have shown that vitamin D may play an important role in the development of obesity. The current study was conducted to quantitatively evaluate the association between serum 25-(OH) vitamin D levels and the risk of obesity in both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies was carried out for that purpose. We searched the Medline, PubMed, and Embase databases throughout all of March 2018. A total of fifty five observational studies for both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects were finally included in the meta-analysis. The data were analyzed by comprehensive meta-analysis software version 3 and the random effects model was used to analyze the data. The meta-analysis showed an overall inverse relationship between serum vitamin D status and body mass index (BMI) in studies of both diabetic (r = −0.173, 95% = −0.241 to −0.103, p = 0.000) and non-diabetic (r = −0.152, 95% = −0.187 to −0.116, p = 0.000) subjects. The evidence of publication bias was not found in this meta-analysis. In conclusion, the deficiency of vitamin D is associated with an increased level of BMI in the studies of both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Reliable evidence from well-designed future randomized controlled trials is required to confirm the findings from observational studies and to find out the potential regulatory effects of vitamin D supplementation to lower BMI. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypovitaminosis D; type 2 diabetes; body mass index; Vitamin D; BMI hypovitaminosis D; type 2 diabetes; body mass index; Vitamin D; BMI

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Rafiq, S.; Jeppesen, P.B. Body Mass Index, Vitamin D, and Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1182.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top