Vitamin D (VD) deficiency is associated with reproductive failure. However, the relationship between VD and maternal immunity remains unclear. We investigated the clinical efficacy of VD in maternal T-helper (Th) cytokines in 276 infertile women and examined for Th1 and Th2 cells based on the deficient, insufficient, and sufficient serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25[OH]VD) levels (<12, 12–30, and >30 ng/mL, respectively). Most infertile women had a low-level of VD (87.3%). Immunological tests of pre-/post-VD supplementation were performed in patients who were deficient and insufficient in VD. Of 23 patients, 11 (47.8%) exhibited sufficient VD levels after supplementation. Th1/Th2 cell ratio in patients with insufficient VD was significantly decreased after supplementation (p
= 0.004). After supplementation, serum 25(OH)VD levels of the patients: 11 in the sufficient group showed significant decreases in Th1 cell level and Th1/Th2 cell ratio (p
= 0.032 and 0.010, respectively), whereas no significant differences in Th1/Th2 cell ratio were recognized in the insufficient group. Furthermore, mid-luteal endometrial biopsies (n
= 18) were processed for primary cultures and measured interferon [IFN]-γ and interleukin [IL]-4 in condition media. Decidualizing cultures with 1,25-dihydroxvitamin D3 (1,25[OH]2
VD) decreased IFN-γ. Sufficient VD supplementation in women with insufficient VD may optimize maternal T-helper cytokines during pregnancy via rebalancing the Th1/Th2 cell ratio.
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