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Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 674; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060674

Predictors of the Healthy Eating Index and Glycemic Index in Multi-Ethnic Colorectal Cancer Families

1
College of Nursing and Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
2
Hull College of Business, Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
3
Citrus Valley Health Partners, Foothill Presbyterian Hospital, Glendora, CA 91741, USA
4
School of Business, University of Phoenix, Pasadena, CA 91101, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 22 May 2018 / Accepted: 24 May 2018 / Published: 26 May 2018
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Abstract

For personalized nutrition in preparation for precision healthcare, we examined the predictors of healthy eating, using the healthy eating index (HEI) and glycemic index (GI), in family-based multi-ethnic colorectal cancer (CRC) families. A total of 106 participants, 53 CRC cases and 53 family members from multi-ethnic families participated in the study. Machine learning validation procedures, including the ensemble method and generalized regression prediction, Elastic Net with Akaike’s Information Criterion with correction and Leave-One-Out cross validation methods, were applied to validate the results for enhanced prediction and reproducibility. Models were compared based on HEI scales for the scores of 77 versus 80 as the status of healthy eating, predicted from individual dietary parameters and health outcomes. Gender and CRC status were interactive as additional predictors of HEI based on the HEI score of 77. Predictors of HEI 80 as the criterion score of a good diet included five significant dietary parameters (with intake amount): whole fruit (1 cup), milk or milk alternative such as soy drinks (6 oz), whole grain (1 oz), saturated fat (15 g), and oil and nuts (1 oz). Compared to the GI models, HEI models presented more accurate and fitted models. Milk or a milk alternative such as soy drink (6 oz) is the common significant parameter across HEI and GI predictive models. These results point to the importance of healthy eating, with the appropriate amount of healthy foods, as modifiable factors for cancer prevention. View Full-Text
Keywords: healthy eating; glycemic index; colorectal cancer; generalized regression elastic net; diverse ethnic groups healthy eating; glycemic index; colorectal cancer; generalized regression elastic net; diverse ethnic groups
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Shiao, S.P.K.; Grayson, J.; Lie, A.; Yu, C.H. Predictors of the Healthy Eating Index and Glycemic Index in Multi-Ethnic Colorectal Cancer Families. Nutrients 2018, 10, 674.

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