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Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 559;

Breakfast in Human Nutrition: The International Breakfast Research Initiative

Institute of Food and Health, University College Dublin, Dublin D04 V1W8, Ireland
Department of Food, Nutrition & Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
Nutri Psy Consult, 91 rue de la Sante, 75013 Paris, France
Center for Public Health Nutrition, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-3410, USA
Division for Risk Assessment and Nutrition, The National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
Nutrition Innovation Centre for Food and Health, Ulster University, Coleraine BT52 1SA, UK
Cereal Partners Worldwide, CH-1350 Orbe, Switzerland
Department of Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, CEU San Pablo University, 28668 Madrid, Spain
GENUD (Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development) Research Group, Universidad de Zaragoza, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Aragón (IIS Aragón), Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2), Centro de Investigación Biomédica en red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
Bell Institute of Health, Nutrition and Food Safety, General Mills, Minneapolis, MN 55427-3870, USA
MS-Nutrition, 13385 Marseille cedex 5, France
Thielecke Consultancy, CH-4123 Allschwil, Switzerland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 27 April 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue International Breakfast Research Consortium)
Full-Text   |   PDF [282 KB, uploaded 14 May 2018]


Breakfast is often referred to as the most important meal of the day and in recent years has been implicated in weight control, cardio-metabolic risk factors and cognitive performance although, at present, the literature remains inconclusive as to the precise health benefits of breakfast. There are extensive reports of breakfast’s contributions to daily food and nutrient intakes, as well as many studies that have compared daily food and nutrient intakes by breakfast consumers and skippers. However, significant variation exists in the definitions of breakfast and breakfast skippers, and in methods used to relate breakfast nutrient intakes to overall diet quality. The present review describes a novel and harmonised approach to the study of the nutritional impact of breakfast through The International Breakfast research Initiative involving national dietary survey data from Canada, Denmark, France, Spain, the UK and the USA. It is anticipated that the analysis of such data along harmonised lines, will allow the project to achieve its primary goal of exploring approaches to defining optimal breakfast food and nutrient intakes. Such data will be of value to public health nutrition policy-makers and food manufacturers and will also allow consistent messaging to help consumers to optimize food choices at breakfast. View Full-Text
Keywords: breakfast; breakfast nutrients; breakfast foods; breakfast guidelines breakfast; breakfast nutrients; breakfast foods; breakfast guidelines
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Gibney, M.J.; Barr, S.I.; Bellisle, F.; Drewnowski, A.; Fagt, S.; Livingstone, B.; Masset, G.; Varela Moreiras, G.; Moreno, L.A.; Smith, J.; Vieux, F.; Thielecke, F.; Hopkins, S. Breakfast in Human Nutrition: The International Breakfast Research Initiative. Nutrients 2018, 10, 559.

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