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Open AccessArticle

Regression Analysis to Identify Factors Associated with Urinary Iodine Concentration at the Sub-National Level in India, Ghana, and Senegal

1
Iodine Global Network, Ottawa, ON K1N 5C8, Canada
2
United Nations Children’s Fund, New York, NY 10017, USA
3
Statistics for Sustainable Development, Reading RG1 4QS, UK
4
Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition, 1202 Geneva, Switzerland
5
All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India
6
Cellule de Lutte contre la Malnutrition, B.P. 45001 Dakar-Fann, Senegal
7
Nutrition Department, Ghana Health Service, Accra, Ghana
8
Iodine Global Network, Seattle, WA 98107, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040516
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 13 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 21 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iodine and Health throughout the Lifecourse)
Single and multiple variable regression analyses were conducted using data from stratified, cluster sample design, iodine surveys in India, Ghana, and Senegal to identify factors associated with urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among women of reproductive age (WRA) at the national and sub-national level. Subjects were survey household respondents, typically WRA. For all three countries, UIC was significantly different (p < 0.05) by household salt iodine category. Other significant differences were by strata and by household vulnerability to poverty in India and Ghana. In multiple variable regression analysis, UIC was significantly associated with strata and household salt iodine category in India and Ghana (p < 0.001). Estimated UIC was 1.6 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.3, 2.0) times higher (India) and 1.4 (95% CI 1.2, 1.6) times higher (Ghana) among WRA from households using adequately iodised salt than among WRA from households using non-iodised salt. Other significant associations with UIC were found in India, with having heard of iodine deficiency (1.2 times higher; CI 1.1, 1.3; p < 0.001) and having improved dietary diversity (1.1 times higher, CI 1.0, 1.2; p = 0.015); and in Ghana, with the level of tomato paste consumption the previous week (p = 0.029) (UIC for highest consumption level was 1.2 times lowest level; CI 1.1, 1.4). No significant associations were found in Senegal. Sub-national data on iodine status are required to assess equity of access to optimal iodine intake and to develop strategic responses as needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: iodine deficiency; iodised salt; single-variable regression; multiple-variable regression; urinary iodine iodine deficiency; iodised salt; single-variable regression; multiple-variable regression; urinary iodine
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Knowles, J.; Kupka, R.; Dumble, S.; Garrett, G.S.; Pandav, C.S.; Yadav, K.; Touré, N.K.; Foriwa Amoaful, E.; Gorstein, J. Regression Analysis to Identify Factors Associated with Urinary Iodine Concentration at the Sub-National Level in India, Ghana, and Senegal. Nutrients 2018, 10, 516.

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