The Anti-Periodontitis Effects of Ethanol Extract Prepared Using Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101
Department of Biochemical Science & Technology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
Department of Food Science, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040472
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
Poor oral health and related diseases, including caries, periodontal disease, and oral cancer, are highly prevalent across the world, particularly in the elderly. This study aimed to investigate the anti-periodontitis activity of fermented skim milk produced using the promising probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101 (NTU101FM). An initial analysis found that an ethanol extract of NTU101FM displayed anti-oxidative activities. Further investigation of pathogen growth inhibition zones, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) revealed that the NTU101FM ethanol extract also had anti-periodontal pathogen activities. In addition, the NTU101FM ethanol extract significantly decreased the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Finally, the NTU101FM ethanol extract was found to inhibit receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation by reducing tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity and the number of TRAP-positive multinucleated osteoclasts. In summary, our study demonstrated that ethanol extract prepared from NTU101FM has potential use as an anti-periodontitis agent.