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Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020258

Intake of 3 Eggs per Day When Compared to a Choline Bitartrate Supplement, Downregulates Cholesterol Synthesis without Changing the LDL/HDL Ratio

1
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Mansfield, CT 06269, USA
2
Departamento de Metodologia de Investigacion, Instituto Nacional de Pediatria, CD Mexico 04530, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 January 2018 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Cholesterol:Is It Related to Chronic Disease)
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Abstract

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is associated with high concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The impact of dietary cholesterol on plasma lipid concentrations still remains a concern. The effects of egg intake in comparison to choline bitartrate supplement was studied in a young, healthy population. Thirty participants were enrolled for a 13-week intervention. After a 2-week run-in period, subjects were randomized to consume either 3 eggs/day or a choline bitartrate supplement (~400 mg choline for both treatments) for 4-weeks each. After a 3-week washout period, they were allocated to the alternate treatment. Dietary records, plasma lipids, apolipoproteins (apo) concentrations, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell expression of regulatory genes for cholesterol homeostasis were assessed at the end of each intervention. Dietary intakes of saturated and monounsaturated fat were higher with the consumption of eggs compared to the choline period. In addition, higher plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (7.5%), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (5%) and LDL-C (8.1%) were observed with egg consumption (p < 0.01), while no change was seen in LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, a key marker of heart disease risk. Compared to choline supplementation, intake of eggs resulted in higher concentrations of plasma apoA-I (8%) and apoE (17%) with no changes in apoB. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase expression were lower with egg consumption by 18% and 31%, respectively (p < 0.05), suggesting a compensation to the increased dietary cholesterol load. Therefore, dietary cholesterol from eggs appears to regulate endogenous synthesis of cholesterol in such a way that the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio is maintained. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary cholesterol; eggs; cholesterol metabolism; apolipoproteins; choline bitartrate; cardiovascular disease; gene expression dietary cholesterol; eggs; cholesterol metabolism; apolipoproteins; choline bitartrate; cardiovascular disease; gene expression
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Lemos, B.S.; Medina-Vera, I.; Blesso, C.N.; Fernandez, M.L. Intake of 3 Eggs per Day When Compared to a Choline Bitartrate Supplement, Downregulates Cholesterol Synthesis without Changing the LDL/HDL Ratio. Nutrients 2018, 10, 258.

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