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Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020223

Do Current Fortification and Supplementation Programs Assure Adequate Intake of Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Belgian Infants, Toddlers, Pregnant Women, and Lactating Women?

1
Department of Public Health and Surveillance, Scientific Institute of Public Health (WIV-ISP), Juliette Wytsmanstraat 14, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
2
Department of Food Safety and Food Quality, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
3
Department of Public Health, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Gent, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 January 2018 / Revised: 4 February 2018 / Accepted: 4 February 2018 / Published: 16 February 2018
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Abstract

Adequate intakes of fat-soluble vitamins are essential to support the growth and development of the foetus, the neonate, and the young child. By means of an online self-administered frequency questionnaire, this study aimed to evaluate the intake of vitamins A, D, E, and K in Belgian infants (n = 455), toddlers (n = 265), pregnant women (n = 161), and lactating women (n = 165). The contribution of foods, fortified foods, and supplements on the total intake was quantified. 5% of toddlers, 16% of pregnant women, and 35% of lactating women had an inadequate vitamin A intake. Conversely, excessive vitamin A intakes were associated with consumption of liver (products). Furthermore, 22% of infants were at risk for inadequate vitamin D intake due to the lack of prophylaxis, while consumption of highly dosed supplements posed a risk for excessive intakes in 6%–26% of infants. Vitamin D intake in pregnant women and lactating women was inadequate (median of 51%, respectively, 60% of the adequate intake). In all groups, the risk for inadequate intake of vitamin E and K was low. Contribution of fortified foods to vitamin A, D, E, and K intake was minor, except in toddlers. National fortification strategies should be investigated as an alternative or additional strategy to prevent vitamin D and A deficiency. There is a need to revise and set uniform supplement recommendations. Finally, non-users of vitamin D prophylaxis need to be identified for targeted treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: infants; toddlers; pregnant women; lactating women; dietary intake; fat-soluble vitamins; micronutrient adequacy; excessive intake; fortified foods; supplements; Belgium infants; toddlers; pregnant women; lactating women; dietary intake; fat-soluble vitamins; micronutrient adequacy; excessive intake; fortified foods; supplements; Belgium
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Moyersoen, I.; Lachat, C.; Cuypers, K.; De Ridder, K.; Devleesschauwer, B.; Tafforeau, J.; Vandevijvere, S.; Vansteenland, M.; De Meulenaer, B.; Van Camp, J.; Van Oyen, H. Do Current Fortification and Supplementation Programs Assure Adequate Intake of Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Belgian Infants, Toddlers, Pregnant Women, and Lactating Women? Nutrients 2018, 10, 223.

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