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Do Current Fortification and Supplementation Programs Assure Adequate Intake of Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Belgian Infants, Toddlers, Pregnant Women, and Lactating Women?

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Department of Public Health and Surveillance, Scientific Institute of Public Health (WIV-ISP), Juliette Wytsmanstraat 14, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
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Department of Food Safety and Food Quality, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
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Department of Public Health, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Gent, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020223
Received: 4 January 2018 / Revised: 4 February 2018 / Accepted: 4 February 2018 / Published: 16 February 2018
Adequate intakes of fat-soluble vitamins are essential to support the growth and development of the foetus, the neonate, and the young child. By means of an online self-administered frequency questionnaire, this study aimed to evaluate the intake of vitamins A, D, E, and K in Belgian infants (n = 455), toddlers (n = 265), pregnant women (n = 161), and lactating women (n = 165). The contribution of foods, fortified foods, and supplements on the total intake was quantified. 5% of toddlers, 16% of pregnant women, and 35% of lactating women had an inadequate vitamin A intake. Conversely, excessive vitamin A intakes were associated with consumption of liver (products). Furthermore, 22% of infants were at risk for inadequate vitamin D intake due to the lack of prophylaxis, while consumption of highly dosed supplements posed a risk for excessive intakes in 6%–26% of infants. Vitamin D intake in pregnant women and lactating women was inadequate (median of 51%, respectively, 60% of the adequate intake). In all groups, the risk for inadequate intake of vitamin E and K was low. Contribution of fortified foods to vitamin A, D, E, and K intake was minor, except in toddlers. National fortification strategies should be investigated as an alternative or additional strategy to prevent vitamin D and A deficiency. There is a need to revise and set uniform supplement recommendations. Finally, non-users of vitamin D prophylaxis need to be identified for targeted treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: infants; toddlers; pregnant women; lactating women; dietary intake; fat-soluble vitamins; micronutrient adequacy; excessive intake; fortified foods; supplements; Belgium infants; toddlers; pregnant women; lactating women; dietary intake; fat-soluble vitamins; micronutrient adequacy; excessive intake; fortified foods; supplements; Belgium
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MDPI and ACS Style

Moyersoen, I.; Lachat, C.; Cuypers, K.; De Ridder, K.; Devleesschauwer, B.; Tafforeau, J.; Vandevijvere, S.; Vansteenland, M.; De Meulenaer, B.; Van Camp, J.; Van Oyen, H. Do Current Fortification and Supplementation Programs Assure Adequate Intake of Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Belgian Infants, Toddlers, Pregnant Women, and Lactating Women? Nutrients 2018, 10, 223. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020223

AMA Style

Moyersoen I, Lachat C, Cuypers K, De Ridder K, Devleesschauwer B, Tafforeau J, Vandevijvere S, Vansteenland M, De Meulenaer B, Van Camp J, Van Oyen H. Do Current Fortification and Supplementation Programs Assure Adequate Intake of Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Belgian Infants, Toddlers, Pregnant Women, and Lactating Women? Nutrients. 2018; 10(2):223. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020223

Chicago/Turabian Style

Moyersoen, Isabelle, Carl Lachat, Koenraad Cuypers, Karin De Ridder, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Jean Tafforeau, Stefanie Vandevijvere, Margot Vansteenland, Bruno De Meulenaer, John Van Camp, and Herman Van Oyen. 2018. "Do Current Fortification and Supplementation Programs Assure Adequate Intake of Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Belgian Infants, Toddlers, Pregnant Women, and Lactating Women?" Nutrients 10, no. 2: 223. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020223

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