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Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1868; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121868

Dietary Advanced Glycation Endproducts Induce an Inflammatory Response in Human Macrophages in Vitro

1
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Health, Medicine, and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, 6229 ER Maastricht, The Netherlands
2
RIKILT, Wageningen University and Research, 6708 WB Wageningen, The Netherlands
3
Campus Venlo, Maastricht University, 5911 AA Venlo, The Netherlands
4
Office for Risk Assessment and Research (BuRO), Dutch Food and Consumer Safety Authority, NVWA, 3511 GG Utrecht, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 October 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 22 November 2018 / Published: 2 December 2018
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Abstract

Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) can be found in protein- and sugar-rich food products processed at high temperatures, which make up a vast amount of the Western diet. The effect of AGE-rich food products on human health is not yet clear and controversy still exists due to possible contamination of samples with endotoxin and the use of endogenous formed AGEs. AGEs occur in food products, both as protein-bound and individual molecules. Which form exactly induces a pro-inflammatory effect is also unknown. In this study, we exposed human macrophage-like cells to dietary AGEs, both in a protein matrix and individual AGEs. It was ensured that all samples did not contain endotoxin concentrations > 0.06 EU/mL. The dietary AGEs induced TNF-alpha secretion of human macrophage-like cells. This effect was decreased by the addition of N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine (CML)-antibodies or a receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) antagonist. None of the individual AGEs induce any TNF-alpha, indicating that AGEs should be bound to proteins to exert an inflammatory reaction. These findings show that dietary AGEs directly stimulate the inflammatory response of human innate immune cells and help us define the risk of regular consumption of AGE-rich food products on human health. View Full-Text
Keywords: advanced glycation endproducts; inflammation; food; macrophages; Maillard reaction advanced glycation endproducts; inflammation; food; macrophages; Maillard reaction
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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van der Lugt, T.; Weseler, A.R.; Gebbink, W.A.; Vrolijk, M.F.; Opperhuizen, A.; Bast, A. Dietary Advanced Glycation Endproducts Induce an Inflammatory Response in Human Macrophages in Vitro. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1868.

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