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Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1674; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111674

Dietary Diversity and Food Variety in Chinese Children Aged 3–17 Years: Are They Negatively Associated with Dietary Micronutrient Inadequacy?

1
Inner Mongolia Dairy Technology Research Institute Co., Ltd., Inner Mongolia, 63 Xidawang Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100022, China
2
Yili Innovation Center, Inner Mongolia Yili Industrial Group Co., Ltd., 8 Jinshan Road, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010110, China
3
Yili Innovation Center Europe, Bronland 12E-1, 6708 WH Wageningen, The Netherlands
4
School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 13 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 5 November 2018
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Abstract

Micronutrient inadequacy remains a nutritional problem in Chinese children. However, the associations between dietary diversity and inadequate micronutrient intake have not been extensively studied. A total of 2012 children aged 3–17 years from the China Health and Nutrition Survey were included for analysis. Dietary diversity score (DDS) and food variety scores (FVS) were assessed based on three 24-h recall periods. The nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR) was used to determine the micronutrient adequacy of the diet. The mean adequacy ratio (MAR, %) was defined as the sum of each NAR divided by the number of involved micronutrients. Overall micronutrient inadequacy (OMI) was defined as having a MAR below 0.75. Micronutrient inadequacy was defined as the proportion of individuals whose nutrient intake was less than the estimated average requirement. After adjustment confounders, DDS and FVSs were positively associated with MAR and NAR of most nutrients except sodium (p < 0.05). A higher DDS was negatively associated with the prevalence of inadequate intake of vitamin A, riboflavin, vitamin C, iron, zinc, selenium, niacin, phosphorus, magnesium and OMI. Similar results were found for FVSs. In conclusion, this study indicates that poor dietary diversity and food variety in Chinese children are directly associated with inadequate micronutrient intake. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary diversity; food variety; micronutrient adequacy; children dietary diversity; food variety; micronutrient adequacy; children
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Meng, L.; Wang, Y.; Li, T.; Loo-Bouwman, C.A.; Zhang, Y.; Man-Yau Szeto, I. Dietary Diversity and Food Variety in Chinese Children Aged 3–17 Years: Are They Negatively Associated with Dietary Micronutrient Inadequacy? Nutrients 2018, 10, 1674.

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