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Open AccessArticle

Novel Anti-Obesity Properties of Palmaria mollis in Zebrafish and Mouse Models

Graduate School of Regional Innovation Studies, Mie University, Tsu, Mie 514-8507, Japan
Mie University Zebrafish Drug Screening Center, Tsu, Mie 514-8507, Japan
Department of Integrative Pharmacology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie 514-8507, Japan
Department of Bioinformatics, Mie University Advanced Science Research Promotion Center, Tsu, Mie 514-8507, Japan
Konan Chemical Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Yokkaichi, Mie 510-0103, Japan
College of Business, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
Coastal Oregon Marine Experiment Station and Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Hatfield Marine Science Center, College of Agricultural Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equal contribution to this work.
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1401;
Received: 27 August 2018 / Revised: 26 September 2018 / Accepted: 28 September 2018 / Published: 2 October 2018
(1) Background: The red seaweed Palmaria mollis (PM), which has a bacon-like taste, is increasingly being included in Western diets. In this study, we evaluate anti-obesity effects of PM using diet-induced obese (DIO) zebrafish and mice models. (2) Methods: We fed PM-containing feed to DIO-zebrafish and mice, and evaluated the anti-obesity effects We also analyzed gene expression changes in their liver and visceral adipose tissues (VAT). (3) Results: PM ameliorated several anti-obesity traits in both animals, including dyslipidaemia, hepatic steatosis, and visceral adiposity. In liver tissues of DIO-zebrafish and mice, PM upregulated gene expressions involved in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARA) pathways, and downregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) pathways, suggesting that the lipid-lowering effect of PM might be caused by activation of beta-oxidation and inhibition of lipogenesis. In VAT, PM downregulated genes involved in early and late adipocyte differentiation in zebrafish, but not in mice. (4) Conclusions: We have demonstrated that PM can prevent hepatic steatosis and visceral adiposity for the first time. Dietary supplementation of PM as a functional food may be suitable for obesity prevention and reduction in the prevalence of obesity-related diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolic syndrome; animal model; comparative genomics; adipogenesis metabolic syndrome; animal model; comparative genomics; adipogenesis
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Nakayama, H.; Shimada, Y.; Zang, L.; Terasawa, M.; Nishiura, K.; Matsuda, K.; Toombs, C.; Langdon, C.; Nishimura, N. Novel Anti-Obesity Properties of Palmaria mollis in Zebrafish and Mouse Models. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1401.

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