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Remote Sens. 2017, 9(9), 892;

Satellite Survey of Internal Waves in the Black and Caspian Seas

Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117997, Russia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 24 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Remote Sensing with Synthetic Aperture Radar)
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The paper discusses the results of a study of short-period internal waves (IWs) in the Black and Caspian Seas from their surface manifestations in satellite imagery. Since tides are negligible in these seas, they can be considered non-tidal. Consequently, the main generation mechanism of IWs in the ocean—interaction of barotropic tides with bathymetry—is irrelevant. A statistically significant survey of IW occurrences in various regions of the two seas is presented. Detailed maps of spatial distribution of surface manifestations of internal waves (SMIWs) are compiled. Factors facilitating generation of IWs are determined, and a comprehensive discussion of IW generation mechanisms is presented. In the eastern and western coastal zones of the Black Sea, where large rivers disembogue, intrusions of fresh water create hydrological fronts that are able to generate IWs. At the continental shelf edge, on the west and northwest of the Black Sea and near the Crimean Peninsula, IWs are generated primarily due to relaxation of coastal upwelling and inertial oscillations associated with hydrological fronts. In addition, IWs can be formed at sea fronts associated with the passage of cold eddies. In the Caspian Sea, seiches are the main source of the observed IWs. View Full-Text
Keywords: Caspian Sea; Black Sea; internal waves; satellite remote sensing; sea surface; SAR imagery. Caspian Sea; Black Sea; internal waves; satellite remote sensing; sea surface; SAR imagery.

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Lavrova, O.; Mityagina, M. Satellite Survey of Internal Waves in the Black and Caspian Seas. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 892.

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