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Open AccessArticle

Dry Season Evapotranspiration Dynamics over Human-Impacted Landscapes in the Southern Amazon Using the Landsat-Based METRIC Model

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Department, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA
Geospatial Sciences Center of Excellence, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA
South Dakota Water Resources Institute, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA
Department of Biological Sciences, California State University San Marcos, San Marcos, CA 92096, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Zhaoliang Li, Clement Atzberger and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(7), 706;
Received: 24 May 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 9 July 2017
Although seasonal and temporal variations in evapotranspiration (ET) in Amazonia have been studied based upon flux-tower data and coarse resolution satellite-based models, ET dynamics over human-impacted landscapes are highly uncertain in this region. In this study, we estimate ET rates from critical land cover types over highly fragmented landscapes in the southern Amazon and characterize the ET dynamics during the dry season using the METRIC (Mapping Evapotranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration) model. METRIC, a Landsat-based ET model, that generates spatially continuous ET estimates at a 30 m spatial resolution widely used for agricultural applications, was adapted to the southern Amazon by using the NDVI indexed reference ET fraction (ETrF) approach. Compared to flux tower-based ET rates, this approach showed an improved performance on the forest ET estimation over the standard METRIC approach, with R2 = 0.73 from R2 = 0.70 and RMSE reduced from 0.77 mm/day to 0.35 mm/day. We used this approach integrated into the METRIC procedure to estimate ET rates from primary, regenerated, and degraded forests and pasture in Acre, Rondônia, and Mato Grosso, all located in the southern Amazon, during the dry season in 2009. The lowest ET rates occurred in Mato Grosso, the driest region. Acre and Rondônia, both located in the southwestern Amazon, had similar ET rates for all land cover types. Dry season ET rates between primary forest and regenerated forest were similar (p > 0.05) in all sites, ranging between 2.5 and 3.4 mm/day for both forest cover types in the three sites. ET rates from degraded forest in Mato Grosso were significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared to the other forest cover types, with a value of 2.03 mm/day on average. Pasture showed the lowest ET rates during the dry season at all study sites, with the dry season average ET varying from 1.7 mm/day in Mato Grosso to 2.8 mm/day in Acre. View Full-Text
Keywords: evapotranspiration; METRIC; Amazon evapotranspiration; METRIC; Amazon
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khand, K.; Numata, I.; Kjaersgaard, J.; Vourlitis, G.L. Dry Season Evapotranspiration Dynamics over Human-Impacted Landscapes in the Southern Amazon Using the Landsat-Based METRIC Model. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 706.

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