Next Article in Journal
A Spatio-Temporal Data Fusion Model for Generating NDVI Time Series in Heterogeneous Regions
Previous Article in Journal
Temporal Evolution of Regional Drought Detected from GRACE TWSA and CCI SM in Yunnan Province, China
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(11), 1120;

Appling the One-Class Classification Method of Maxent to Detect an Invasive Plant Spartina alterniflora with Time-Series Analysis

1,2,3,4,* , 1,2,3,4
College of Geography Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment, Nanjing Normal University, Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210023, China
State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base of Geographical Environment Evolution (Jiangsu Province), Nanjing 210023, China
Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing 210023, China
Yancheng National Natural Reserve, Yancheng 224333, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 September 2017 / Revised: 28 October 2017 / Accepted: 30 October 2017 / Published: 4 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing in Agriculture and Vegetation)
Full-Text   |   PDF [36583 KB, uploaded 7 November 2017]   |  


Spartina alterniflora has become the main invasive plant along the Chinese coast and now threatens the local ecological environment. Accurately monitoring the distribution of S. alterniflora is urgent and essential for developing cost-effective control strategies. In this study, we applied the One-Class Classification (OCC) methods of Maximum entropy (Maxent) and Biased Support Vector Machine (BSVM) based on Landsat time-series imagery to detect the species on the middle coast of Jiangsu in east China. We conducted four experimental setups (i.e., single-scene analysis, time-series analysis, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time-series analysis and a compressed time-series analysis), using OCC methods to recognize the species. Then, we tested the performance of a compressed time-series model for S. alterniflora detection and evaluated the expansibility of this approach when it was applied to a larger region. Our principal findings are as follows: (1) Maxent and BSVM performed equally well, and Maxent appeared to have a more balanced performance over the summer months; (2) the Maxent model with the Default Parameter Set (Maxent-DPS) showed a slightly higher accuracy and more overfitting than Maxent with the Akaike Information Criterion corrected for small samples sizes (AICc)-selected parameter set model, but a t-test found no significant difference between these two settings; (3) April and December were deemed to be important periods for the detection of S. alterniflora; (4) a compressed time-series analysis model—including only three variables (December NDVI, March green and the third Principal Component in January, PC3)—yielded higher accuracy than single-scene analyses, which indicated that time-series analysis can better detect S. alterniflora than single-scene analyses; and (5) the Maxent model using the reconstructed optimal variables and 70 training samples over a larger region produced encouraging results with an overall accuracy of 90.88% and a Kappa of 0.78. The one-class classification method combined with a phenology-based detection strategy is therefore promising for the application of the long-term detection of S. alterniflora over extended areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: Spartina alterniflora; Maxent; one-class classification; Landsat; time-series Spartina alterniflora; Maxent; one-class classification; Landsat; time-series

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, X.; Liu, H.; Gong, H.; Lin, Z.; Lv, S. Appling the One-Class Classification Method of Maxent to Detect an Invasive Plant Spartina alterniflora with Time-Series Analysis. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 1120.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Remote Sens. EISSN 2072-4292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top