Next Article in Journal
Evaluation of IMERG and TRMM 3B43 Monthly Precipitation Products over Mainland China
Next Article in Special Issue
Multi-Resolution Mapping and Accuracy Assessment of Forest Carbon Density by Combining Image and Plot Data from a Nested and Clustering Sampling Design
Previous Article in Journal
Assessing the Accuracy of High Resolution Digital Surface Models Computed by PhotoScan® and MicMac® in Sub-Optimal Survey Conditions
Previous Article in Special Issue
Accuracy of Reconstruction of the Tree Stem Surface Using Terrestrial Close-Range Photogrammetry
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(6), 469;

Examining Spectral Reflectance Saturation in Landsat Imagery and Corresponding Solutions to Improve Forest Aboveground Biomass Estimation

Key Laboratory of Carbon Cycling in Forest Ecosystems and Carbon Sequestration of Zhejiang Province, School of Environmental & Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin’an 311300, China
Center for Global Change and Earth Observations, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823, USA
Department of Geography, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA
Zhejiang Forestry Academy, Hangzhou 310023, China
School of Forestry and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin’an 311300, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Erkki Tomppo, Ronald E. McRorberts, Huaiqing Zhang, Qi Chen, Nicolas Baghdadi and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 3 March 2016 / Revised: 18 May 2016 / Accepted: 30 May 2016 / Published: 2 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Forest Resource Monitoring and Uncertainty Analysis)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3695 KB, uploaded 2 June 2016]   |  


The data saturation problem in Landsat imagery is well recognized and is regarded as an important factor resulting in inaccurate forest aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation. However, no study has examined the saturation values for different vegetation types such as coniferous and broadleaf forests. The objective of this study is to estimate the saturation values in Landsat imagery for different vegetation types in a subtropical region and to explore approaches to improving forest AGB estimation. Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery, digital elevation model data, and field measurements in Zhejiang province of Eastern China were used. Correlation analysis and scatterplots were first used to examine specific spectral bands and their relationships with AGB. A spherical model was then used to quantitatively estimate the saturation value of AGB for each vegetation type. A stratification of vegetation types and/or slope aspects was used to determine the potential to improve AGB estimation performance by developing a specific AGB estimation model for each category. Stepwise regression analysis based on Landsat spectral signatures and textures using grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) was used to develop AGB estimation models for different scenarios: non-stratification, stratification based on either vegetation types, slope aspects, or the combination of vegetation types and slope aspects. The results indicate that pine forest and mixed forest have the highest AGB saturation values (159 and 152 Mg/ha, respectively), Chinese fir and broadleaf forest have lower saturation values (143 and 123 Mg/ha, respectively), and bamboo forest and shrub have the lowest saturation values (75 and 55 Mg/ha, respectively). The stratification based on either vegetation types or slope aspects provided smaller root mean squared errors (RMSEs) than non-stratification. The AGB estimation models based on stratification of both vegetation types and slope aspects provided the most accurate estimation with the smallest RMSE of 24.5 Mg/ha. Relatively low AGB (e.g., less than 40 Mg/ha) sites resulted in overestimation and higher AGB (e.g., greater than 140 Mg/ha) sites resulted in underestimation. The smallest RMSE was obtained when AGB was 80–120 Mg/ha. This research indicates the importance of stratification in mitigating the data saturation problem, thus improving AGB estimation. View Full-Text
Keywords: data saturation; aboveground biomass; Landsat; texture; regression; stratification data saturation; aboveground biomass; Landsat; texture; regression; stratification

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, P.; Lu, D.; Wang, G.; Wu, C.; Huang, Y.; Yu, S. Examining Spectral Reflectance Saturation in Landsat Imagery and Corresponding Solutions to Improve Forest Aboveground Biomass Estimation. Remote Sens. 2016, 8, 469.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Remote Sens. EISSN 2072-4292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top