2. Literature Review
3.1. RANSAC Algorithm
3.2. RANSAC-Based Registration of TLS Data
- Given two point sets and , randomly select three points and similarly select three points in the point set B. First, calculate the mode of the vector and the vector , with the constraints of .
- Find the correspondence relations from the point set vector in the same way. If the correspondence in the three groups is exactly three points in the point set , the relationship of the point set and point set is:.
- Calculate R, T, n, and m according to Equations (1) and (2). The initial value of the rotation and translation between the two scanning positions is obtained through these equations, and the resulting the residual vector of the points is calculated using through Equation (3). In Equation (3), and are the conjugate coordinates in the scanning positions and , respectively. In addition, the mean error of the registration for the two scanning positions is obtained from Equation (4).
- Iterations follow in order to refine the solution as needed. The above steps are repeated, and the matrices R and T are updated if one of the following two conditions is met in the iteration:
- The number of corresponding points in the point set : or
- The number of the corresponding points in the point set :, and residuals .
- A convergence is achieved and R and T are estimated in a typical adjustment fashion when the number of the conjugate points is > the threshold and the mean error of registration is < the threshold.
3.3. Closed Constraint Adjustment (CCA) Based Registration for Point Cloud Data
3.3.1. Sources of Error Analysis
- Range accuracy of a three-dimensional scanner is limited;
- Scanning in different angles generates errors due to different incident angles;
- Extraction accuracy for the center of the target is affected, as the target has strong reflection and will be "floated" from the background objects; and
- External environmental factors, including atmospheric conditions and scattered light, might affect the working status of the scanner and the reflection of the target.
3.3.2. Propagation of Registration Error
3.3.3. The CCA by Redundant Observation Conditions
4. Experimental Results and Discussion
4.1. Experimental Scene and Device Description
4.2. Registration Test between the Adjacent Scanning Positions
4.3. Registration Experiment for all Scanning Positions
4.3.1. Registration Experiment Using Adjustment Processing
4.3.2. The CCA Experiment
5. Concluding Remarks
Conflicts of Interest
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|Initial Value||Need External Control||Using Point Cloud||Using Target Point||Precision &Stability Depend on|
|RANSAC & CCA||No||No||No||Yes||Target point|
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