Next Article in Journal
Satellite Images for Monitoring Mangrove Cover Changes in a Fast Growing Economic Region in Southern Peninsular Malaysia
Previous Article in Journal
A Dimension Reduction Framework for HSI Classification Using Fuzzy and Kernel NFLE Transformation
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(11), 14327-14359;

Relief Effects on the L-Band Emission of a Bare Soil

Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Zürcherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (IMK-IFU), Kreuzeckbahnstraße 19, 82467 Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany
Gamma Remote Sensing AG, Worbstrasse 225, 3073 Gümligen, Switzerland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Richard Müller, Nicolas Baghdadi and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 16 August 2015 / Revised: 14 October 2015 / Accepted: 16 October 2015 / Published: 29 October 2015
Full-Text   |   PDF [8835 KB, uploaded 3 November 2015]   |  


In a combined experimental and model study, we investigated effects of surface topography (relief) on the thermal L-band emission of a sandy soil. To this end, brightness temperatures of two adjacent footprint areas were measured quasi-simultaneously with an L-band radiometer at the observation angle of 55° relative to nadir for one year. One footprint featured a distinct relief in the form of erosion gullies with steep slopes, whereas the surface of the second footprint was smooth. Additionally, hydrometeorological variables, in situ soil moisture and temperature were measured, and digital terrain models of the two scenes were derived from terrestrial laser scanning. A facet model, taking into account the topography of the footprint surfaces as well as the antenna’s directivity, was developed and brightness temperatures of both footprints were simulated based on the hydrometeorological and in situ soil data. We found that brightness temperatures of the footprint with the distinct surface relief were increased at horizontal and decreased at vertical polarization with respect to those of the plane footprint. The simulations showed that this is mainly due to modifications of local (facet) observation angles and due to polarization mixing caused by the pronounced relief. Measurements furthermore revealed that brightness temperatures of both areas respond differently to changing ambient conditions indicating differences in their hydrological properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: microwave radiometry; microwave emission model; relief; topography; soil moisture microwave radiometry; microwave emission model; relief; topography; soil moisture

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Völksch, I.; Schwank, M.; Stähli, M.; Mätzler, C. Relief Effects on the L-Band Emission of a Bare Soil. Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 14327-14359.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Remote Sens. EISSN 2072-4292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top