# Watermarking Algorithm for Remote Sensing Images Based on Ring-Shaped Template Watermark and Multiscale LCM

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

- Design of a ring-shaped template watermark.
- Conversion of the watermark into small targets.
- Enhancement of the watermark using multiscale LCM.
- Peak detection based on remapping and column-wise summation.
- Watermark extraction based on the circular edge local binarization method.
- Robustness against geometric attacks.

## 2. Methodology

#### 2.1. Ring-Shaped Template Watermark

#### 2.1.1. Radius of Template Watermark

#### 2.1.2. Embedding of Template Watermark

#### 2.2. Multiscale LCM

#### 2.3. Peak Detection

#### 2.4. Watermark Detection

## 3. Experiments

#### 3.1. Datasets

#### 3.2. Evaluation

#### 3.2.1. Imperceptibility

#### 3.2.2. Robustness

#### 3.3. Experiment Design and Implementation

#### 3.3.1. Comparative Methods and Parameter Settings

#### 3.3.2. Geometric Attacks

- (1)
- Rotation attacks

- (2)
- Scaling attacks

- (3)
- Translation attacks

- (4)
- Cropping attacks

## 4. Results and Analyses

#### 4.1. The Results of Imperceptibility

#### 4.2. The Results of Rotation Attacks

#### 4.3. The Results of Scaling Attacks

#### 4.4. The Results of Translation Attacks

#### 4.5. The Results of Cropping Attacks

## 5. Discussion

#### 5.1. Scaling Factor of 0.5

#### 5.2. Watermark Capacity

## 6. Conclusions and Outlooks

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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$\mathbf{Scaling}\mathbf{Factor}\mathit{s}$ | Dimensions after Attack |
---|---|

0.5 | $128\times $128 |

0.6 | $154\times $154 |

0.7 | $180\times $180 |

0.8 | $205\times $205 |

0.9 | $231\times $231 |

1 | $256\times $256 |

2 | $512\times $512 |

3 | $768\times $768 |

4 | $1024\times $1024 |

5 | $1280\times $1280 |

6 | $1536\times $1536 |

7 | $1792\times $1792 |

8 | $2048\times $2048 |

9 | $2304\times $2304 |

10 | $2560\times $2560 |

Method | Proposed Method | Method Sun | Method Heidari |
---|---|---|---|

PSNR (db) | 45.13 | 41.30 | 38.24 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Zhou, Q.; Sun, H.; Pang, X.; Ai, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, C.; Ren, N.
Watermarking Algorithm for Remote Sensing Images Based on Ring-Shaped Template Watermark and Multiscale LCM. *Remote Sens.* **2024**, *16*, 2535.
https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16142535

**AMA Style**

Zhou Q, Sun H, Pang X, Ai C, Zhu X, Zhu C, Ren N.
Watermarking Algorithm for Remote Sensing Images Based on Ring-Shaped Template Watermark and Multiscale LCM. *Remote Sensing*. 2024; 16(14):2535.
https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16142535

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Zhou, Qifei, Hua Sun, Xinyan Pang, Chi Ai, Xiaoye Zhu, Changqing Zhu, and Na Ren.
2024. "Watermarking Algorithm for Remote Sensing Images Based on Ring-Shaped Template Watermark and Multiscale LCM" *Remote Sensing* 16, no. 14: 2535.
https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16142535