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Hail Climatology in the Mediterranean Basin Using the GPM Constellation (1999–2021)

CNR-ISAC, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Kenji Nakamura, Jungho Kim, Mikiko Fujita and Atsushi Hamada
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(17), 4320;
Received: 28 July 2022 / Revised: 25 August 2022 / Accepted: 26 August 2022 / Published: 1 September 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing for Precipitation Retrievals)
The impacts of hailstorms on human beings and structures and the associated high economic costs have raised significant interest in studying storm mechanisms and climatology, thus producing a substantial amount of literature in the field. To contribute to this effort, we have explored the hail frequency in the Mediterranean basin during the last two decades (1999–2021) on the basis of hail occurrences derived from the observations of the microwave radiometers on board satellites of the Global Precipitation Measurement Constellation (GPM-C) from 2014 (date of GPM Core Observatory launch) onwards and merging multiple other satellite platforms prior to 2014. According to the MWCC-H method, two hail event categories (hail and super hail) are identified, and their spatiotemporal distributions are evaluated to identify the hail development areas in the Mediterranean and the corresponding monthly climatology of hail occurrences. Our results show that the northern sectors of the domain (France, Alpine Region, Po Valley, and Central-Eastern Europe) tend to be hit by hailstorms from June to August, while the central sectors (from Spain to Turkey) are more affected as autumn approaches. The trend analysis shows that the mean number of hail events over the entire domain tends to substantially increase, showing a higher increment during 2010–2021 than during 1999–2010. This behavior was particularly enhanced over Southern Italy and the Balkans. Our findings point to the existence of “sub-hotspots”, i.e., Mediterranean regions most susceptible to hail events and thus possibly more vulnerable to climate change effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: hailstorms; climatology; Mediterranean; GPM-C passive microwaves hailstorms; climatology; Mediterranean; GPM-C passive microwaves
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MDPI and ACS Style

Laviola, S.; Monte, G.; Cattani, E.; Levizzani, V. Hail Climatology in the Mediterranean Basin Using the GPM Constellation (1999–2021). Remote Sens. 2022, 14, 4320.

AMA Style

Laviola S, Monte G, Cattani E, Levizzani V. Hail Climatology in the Mediterranean Basin Using the GPM Constellation (1999–2021). Remote Sensing. 2022; 14(17):4320.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Laviola, Sante, Giulio Monte, Elsa Cattani, and Vincenzo Levizzani. 2022. "Hail Climatology in the Mediterranean Basin Using the GPM Constellation (1999–2021)" Remote Sensing 14, no. 17: 4320.

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