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Article

Integrated High-Definition Visualization of Digital Archives for Borobudur Temple

1
Graduate School of Information Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga 525-8577, Japan
2
College of Information Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga 525-8577, Japan
3
Nara National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Nara 630-8577, Japan
4
Research Center for Area Studies, National Research and Innovation Agency, Jakarta 12710, Indonesia
5
Borobudur Conservation Office, Magelang 56553, Indonesia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nikos Grammalidis, Kosmas Dimitropoulos and Anastasios Doulamis
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(24), 5024; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13245024
Received: 14 November 2021 / Revised: 5 December 2021 / Accepted: 7 December 2021 / Published: 10 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digitization and Visualization in Cultural Heritage)
The preservation and analysis of tangible cultural heritage sites have attracted enormous interest worldwide. Recently, establishing three-dimensional (3D) digital archives has emerged as a critical strategy for the permanent preservation and digital analysis of cultural sites. For extant parts of cultural sites, 3D scanning is widely used for efficient and accurate digitization. However, in many historical sites, many parts that have been damaged or lost by natural or artificial disasters are unavailable for 3D scanning. The remaining available data sources for these destroyed parts are photos, computer-aided design (CAD) drawings, written descriptions, etc. In this paper, we achieve an integrated digital archive of a UNESCO World Heritage site, namely, the Borobudur temple, in which buried reliefs and internal foundations are not available for 3D scanning. We introduce a digitizing framework to integrate three different kinds of data sources and to create a unified point-cloud-type digital archive. This point-based integration enables us to digitally record the entire 3D structure of the target cultural heritage site. Then, the whole site is visualized by stochastic point-based rendering (SPBR) precisely and comprehensibly. The proposed framework is widely applicable to other large-scale cultural sites. View Full-Text
Keywords: cultural heritage; digital archive; 3D reconstruction; transparent visualization; the Borobudur temple cultural heritage; digital archive; 3D reconstruction; transparent visualization; the Borobudur temple
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pan, J.; Li, L.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hasegawa, K.; Thufail, F.I.; Brahmantara; Tanaka, S. Integrated High-Definition Visualization of Digital Archives for Borobudur Temple. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 5024. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13245024

AMA Style

Pan J, Li L, Yamaguchi H, Hasegawa K, Thufail FI, Brahmantara, Tanaka S. Integrated High-Definition Visualization of Digital Archives for Borobudur Temple. Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(24):5024. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13245024

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pan, Jiao, Liang Li, Hiroshi Yamaguchi, Kyoko Hasegawa, Fadjar I. Thufail, Brahmantara, and Satoshi Tanaka. 2021. "Integrated High-Definition Visualization of Digital Archives for Borobudur Temple" Remote Sensing 13, no. 24: 5024. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13245024

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