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Open AccessArticle

Toward the Detection of Permafrost Using Land-Surface Temperature Mapping

1
University of Washington, Department of Earth and Space Science and Quaternary Research Center, Box 351310, Seattle, WA 98195-1310, USA
2
Geological Survey of Israel, 32 Yishayahu Leibovitz St., Jerusalem 9692100, Israel
3
Geocryology, Instituto Argentino de Nivología, Glaciología y Ciencias Ambientales (IANIGLA), CCT CONICET Mendoza, Bajada del Cerro s/n, P.O. Box 330, Mendoza 5500, Argentina
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(4), 695; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12040695
Received: 14 January 2020 / Revised: 12 February 2020 / Accepted: 17 February 2020 / Published: 20 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ASTER 20th Anniversary)
Permafrost is degrading under current warming conditions, disrupting infrastructure, releasing carbon from soils, and altering seasonal water availability. Therefore, it is important to quantitatively map the change in the extent and depth of permafrost. We used satellite images of land-surface temperature to recognize and map the zero curtain, i.e., the isothermal period of ground temperature during seasonal freeze and thaw, as a precursor for delineating permafrost boundaries from remotely sensed thermal-infrared data. The phase transition of moisture in the ground allows the zero curtain to occur when near-surface soil moisture thaws or freezes, and also when ice-rich permafrost thaws or freezes. We propose that mapping the zero curtain is a precursor to mapping permafrost at shallow depths. We used ASTER and a MODIS-Aqua daily afternoon land-surface temperature (LST) timeseries to recognize the zero curtain at the 1-km scale as a “proof of concept.” Our regional mapping of the zero curtain over an area around the 7000 m high volcano Ojos del Salado in Chile suggests that the zero curtain can be mapped over arid regions of the world. It also indicates that surface heterogeneity, snow cover, and cloud cover can hinder the effectiveness of our approach. To be of practical use in many areas, it may be helpful to reduce the topographic and compositional heterogeneity in order to increase the LST accuracy. The necessary finer spatial resolution to reduce these problems is provided by ASTER (90 m). View Full-Text
Keywords: land-surface temperature; zero curtain effect; MODIS; ASTER; permafrost; phase change land-surface temperature; zero curtain effect; MODIS; ASTER; permafrost; phase change
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MDPI and ACS Style

Batbaatar, J.; Gillespie, A.R.; Sletten, R.S.; Mushkin, A.; Amit, R.; Trombotto Liaudat, D.; Liu, L.; Petrie, G. Toward the Detection of Permafrost Using Land-Surface Temperature Mapping. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 695.

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