Fog degrades horizontal visibility causing significant adverse impacts on transport systems. The detection of fog from satellite data remains challenging especially in the presence of higher clouds, dust, mist, or unknown underlying soil conditions. Observations from Meteosat second generation Spinning-Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (MSG SEVIRI) over the United Arab Emirates (UAE), an arid area on the Arabian Peninsula, from 2016 to 2018 (two fog seasons) are used in this study. We implement an adaptive threshold-based technique using pseudo-emissivity values to detect nocturnal fog from SEVIRI. The method allows the threshold to vary spatially and temporally. Low clouds are detected with the analysis of the vertical temperature gradient. Fog classification was verified against four stations in the UAE, namely Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Al Ain, and Al Maktoum, where visibility and meteorological observations are available. The probability of detection (POD) (false alarm ratio (FAR)) was 0.81 (0.40), 0.83 (0.50), 0.83 (0.33), and 0.77 (0.44) at Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Al Ain, and Al Maktoum, respectively. In addition, the spatial frequency of fog is presented, which provides new insights into the fog dynamics in the region.
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