Impervious surface is the major component of urban areas, and it has been widely considered as the key for assessing the degree of urban sprawl. While the effectiveness of applying spectral mixture analysis (SMA) and spectral indices in mapping urban impervious surface has been proved, most studies have relied either on SMA or spectral indices without considering both. In this study, the SMA and spectral indices were integrated together to map impervious surfaces distributions in both Milwaukee County in the Wisconsin State and Fayette County in the Kentucky State. Specifically, spectral indices were used for identifying major land covers. Two-dimensional feature space plots were generated by calculated spectral indices images for endmember selection and extraction. Linear constrained SMA was finally applied to quantify the fractional impervious surfaces. Research results indicate that the proposed method has achieved a promising accuracy, and better performance was achieved in less developed areas than the developed areas. Moreover, a comparative analysis shows that the proposed method performs better than the conventional method in both the whole study area and the developed areas, and a comparable performance has been achieved in the less developed areas.
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