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Open AccessArticle

Estimating Wave Direction Using Terrestrial GNSS Reflectometry

Department of Geoinformation, Jade University of Applied Sciences, 26121 Oldenburg, Germany
Division of Mapping and Geo-Information Engineering, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 3200003, Israel
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(9), 1027;
Received: 25 March 2019 / Revised: 26 April 2019 / Accepted: 29 April 2019 / Published: 30 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Remote Sensing)
The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) data are part of the global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) observables. In a marine environment, the oscillation of the SNR data can be used to derive reflector heights. Since the attenuation of the SNR oscillation is related to the roughness of the sea surface, the significant wave height (SWH) of the water surface can be calculated from the analysis of the attenuation. The attenuation depends additionally on the relation between the coherent and the incoherent part of the scattered power. The latter is a function of the correlation length of the surface waves. Since the correlation length changes with respect to the direction of the line of sight relative to the wave direction, the attenuation must show an anisotropic characteristic. In this work, we present a method to derive the wave direction from the anisotropy of the attenuation of the SNR data. The method is investigated based on simulated data, as well by the analysis of experimental data from a GNSS station in the North Sea. View Full-Text
Keywords: GNSS; reflectometry; SNR; wave direction GNSS; reflectometry; SNR; wave direction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Reinking, J.; Roggenbuck, O.; Even-Tzur, G. Estimating Wave Direction Using Terrestrial GNSS Reflectometry. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 1027.

AMA Style

Reinking J, Roggenbuck O, Even-Tzur G. Estimating Wave Direction Using Terrestrial GNSS Reflectometry. Remote Sensing. 2019; 11(9):1027.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Reinking, Jörg; Roggenbuck, Ole; Even-Tzur, Gilad. 2019. "Estimating Wave Direction Using Terrestrial GNSS Reflectometry" Remote Sens. 11, no. 9: 1027.

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