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Open AccessArticle

An Automated Rectification Method for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle LiDAR Point Cloud Data Based on Laser Intensity

1
Institute of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System, Peking University, 5 Summer Palace Road, Beijing 100871, China
2
Guangdong Research Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower, Guangzhou 510635, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(7), 811; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11070811
Received: 2 March 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing Image Processing)
Point cloud rectification is an efficient approach to improve the quality of laser point cloud data. Conventional rectification methods mostly relied on ground control points (GCPs), typical artificial ground objects, and raw measurements of the laser scanner which impede automation and adaptability in practice. This paper proposed an automated rectification method for the point cloud data that are acquired by an unmanned aerial vehicle LiDAR system based on laser intensity, with the goal to reduce the dependency of ancillary data and improve the automated level of the rectification process. First, laser intensity images were produced by interpolating the intensity data of all the LiDAR scanning strips. Second, a scale-invariant feature transform algorithm was conducted to extract two dimensional (2D) tie points from the intensity images; the pseudo tie points were removed by using a random sample consensus algorithm. Next, all the 2D tie points were transformed to three dimensional (3D) point cloud to derive 3D tie point sets. After that, the observation error equations were created with the condition of coplanar constraints. Finally, a nonlinear least square algorithm was applied to solve the boresight angular error parameters, which were subsequently used to correct the laser point cloud data. A case study in Shehezi, Xinjiang, China was implemented with our proposed method and the results indicate that our method is efficient to estimate the boresight angular error between the laser scanner and inertial measurement unit. After applying the results of the boresight angular error solution to rectify the laser point cloud, the planar root mean square error (RMSE) is 5.7 cm and decreased by 1.1 cm in average; the elevation RMSE is 1.4 cm and decreased by 0.8 cm in average. Comparing with the stepwise geometric method, our proposed method achieved similar horizontal accuracy and outperformed it in vertical accuracy of registration. View Full-Text
Keywords: LiDAR; boresight angular error; laser intensity; unmanned aerial vehicle; automated rectification LiDAR; boresight angular error; laser intensity; unmanned aerial vehicle; automated rectification
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, X.; Gao, R.; Sun, Q.; Cheng, J. An Automated Rectification Method for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle LiDAR Point Cloud Data Based on Laser Intensity. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 811.

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